Reliance Securities FAQs - general questions and answers

Covid-19 update Wednesday 15th April

Good morning from the UK. It’s Wednesday 15th April.

The fire that severely damaged Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris caught fire 1 year ago today on April 15 2019, Holy Monday and by the time it was finally put out it had destroyed the building’s spire and most of the roof. The stone vaults survived mostly intact, as did most of the cathedral’s artwork and relics. Covid-19 has delayed reconstruction efforts at Notre-Dame de Paris because removal of the melted scaffolding on the cathedral’s roof (scheduled to begin March 23) cannot take place whilst the country remains under coronavirus measures.

On Good Friday Archbishop Michel Aupetit of Paris venerated Notre Dame Cathedral’s relic of Christ’s crown of thorns from inside the badly damaged cathedral. The archbishop prayed: “Lord Jesus, a year ago, this cathedral in which we are, was burning, causing astonishment and a worldwide impetus for it to be rebuilt, restored. Today we are in this half-collapsed cathedral to say that life is still there. The whole world is struck down by a pandemic that spreads death and paralyzes us. This crown of thorns was saved on the evening of the fire by the firefighters. It is the sign of what you suffered from the derision of men. But it is also the magnificent sign that tells us that you are joining us at the height of our suffering, that we are not alone and that you are with us always,” Aupetit said.

Tonight though the Cathedral’s 339 year old 13 tonne bourdon bell (which is called Emmanuel and tuned to F#) will ring out to applaud the hard work of France’s medical workers engaged in the fight against Covid-19 (Source Liberation, in French and the Catholic News Agency).

How much our lives can change in just one year.

Virus news in depth

Trump suspends funding of the world health organisation - the biggest Covid-19 story this morning is the decision by US President Donald Trump to suspend funding of the World Health Organisation pending a review. "Had the WHO done its job to get medical experts into China to objectively assess the situation on the ground and to call out China's lack of transparency, the outbreak could have been contained at its source with very little death," Trump said. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo stated that the WHO "declined to call this a pandemic for an awfully long time because frankly the Chinese Communist Party didn't want that to happen." CNN reports that the US funds $400 million to $500 million to the WHO each year, Trump said, noting that China "contributes roughly $40 million." Another article from CNN points out that the UK announced an additional £65 million contribution to the WHO only a few days ago.
Reaction to Trump's decision has been swift. Al Jazeera quotes Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian during a daily briefing on the situation with the pandemic saying that the pandemic was at a critical stage and that the US' decision would affect all countries of the world. The news agency also quotes Dr Patrice Harris, president of the American Medical Association, who called it "a dangerous step in the wrong direction that will not make defeating COVID-19 easier". Bill Gates has tweeted “Halting funding for the World Health Organization during a world health crisis is as dangerous as it sounds. Their work is slowing the spread of COVID-19 and if that work is stopped no other organization can replace them. The world needs u/WHO now more than ever”. The Irish foreign minister Simon Coveney tweeted “This is indefensible decision, in midst of global pandemic. So many vulnerable populations rely on ⁦@WHO⁩ - deliberately undermining funding & trust now is shocking. Now is a time for global leadership & unity to save lives, not division and blame!” whilst Richard Horton, the editor-in-chief of the influential Lancet medical journal, wrote that Trump’s decision was “a crime against humanity … Every scientist, every health worker, every citizen must resist and rebel against this appalling betrayal of global solidarity”.

Chile counts those who died of coronavirus as recovered because they're 'no longer contagious,' health minister says - News Week reports that cases of the novel coronavirus in Chile have climbed past 7,500, including 82 deaths, while over 2,300 have recovered from infection as of Tuesday, according to data from Johns Hopkins University but coronavirus patients in Chile who have died are being counted among the country's recovered population because they are "no longer contagious," Chile's Health Minister Jaime Mañalich said this week. "We have 898 patients who are no longer contagious, who are not a source of contagion for others and we include them as recovered. These are the people who have completed 14 days of diagnosis or who unfortunately have passed away," Mañalich announced at a press conference. It is unknown when Chile began including the dead among the number of people who have recovered. But the calculation has reportedly been adopted following validation by international health experts, the government claims. (Personal note: I just checked, as of 9am UK time Johns Hopkins has Chile down as 7912 cases with 92 deaths. Hat tip to chomponthebit for this rather odd story).

Virus news in brief

Source; Today’s Guardian live blog unless otherwise stated

Supply chain news in depth

Heathrow cargo flights rise 500% as airport restyles itself as ‘vital airbridge’ - The Guardian says that the number of cargo-only flights at Heathrow has surged to five times normal levels, with the airport now saying it is prioritising medical supplies as passenger travel grinds to a halt. Britain’s biggest airport expects passenger traffic expected to plunge by 90% in April, with remaining flights mainly limited to repatriating citizens stranded abroad during the coronavirus outbreak. Instead, the hub airport is restyling itself as a “vital airbridge” for supplies and medical essentials during the coronavirus crisis. The number of cargo-only flights has jumped significantly; Heathrow’s busiest day for cargo so far was on 31 March, when it handled 38 cargo flights in only one day (the airport usually deals with 47 cargo flights per week). In a related article, the Independent reports that whilst the UK’s East Midlands airport has experienced “only” a 54% drop in total air movements, it’s nevertheless experienced a 7.4% rise in cargo flights with the result that it’s now the tenth busiest airport in Europe putting it ahead of major hubs such as Rome, Munich and Madrid. (Personal note: I live close to East Midlands airport and have definitely noticed there’s still a fair bit of traffic coming and going; it helps that DHL Express have a decent presence there too).

Global Airline Traffic Will Nearly Halve in 2020 - The Wall Street Journal reports that global airline traffic is expected to almost halve this year because of travel restrictions, with no recovery expected until the third quarter, according to an industry trade group. The International Air Transport Association forecast airlines would lose $314 billion in revenue this year, 25% more than its previous estimate as it incorporated more pessimistic assumptions about the hit to the global economy and the relaxation of travel restrictions. (Personal note: for contrast the drop in revenue for the global aviation industry after the 9/11 attacks was about $23bn according to an article in the Guardian; disruption in the industry from that event caused the bankruptcy of Swissair, Belgium's Sabena and Australia's Ansett whilst he American airlines United, US Airways, Northwest and Delta all filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection from creditors).

Amazon faces having its operations reduced to a bare minimum in France - a court has ruled the e-commerce giant can deliver only essential goods while the company evaluates its workers’ risk of coronavirus exposure says today’s Guardian live blog (link above). The court in Nanterre, outside Paris, said Amazon France had “failed to recognise its obligations regarding the security and health of its workers,” according to a ruling seen by AFP. While carrying out the health evaluation, Amazon can prepare and deliver only “food, hygiene and medical products,” the court said. The injunction must be carried out within 24 hours, or Amazon France could face fines of €1m (£873,500) per day. Amazon has one month to carry out the evaluation. Concern has grown over the safety precautions taken by the company; dozens of workers protested in the United States last month.

Pandemic breaks Vietnam supply chains; loss of exports may be permanent - The Loadstar reports that Freight forwarders in Vietnam have seen cargo volumes down by up to 70% on pre-coronavirus levels, as their key markets remain under lockdown. According to Ho Chi Minh City-based supply chain consultant CEL, the world has entered a consumer demand crisis which could permanently alter its supply chains. “As we speak, the American consumer is currently already reducing expenditure on shoes, phones, appliances, clothes, cars and tools, for example,” said CEL managing partner Julien Brun. “Most of which are made in Asia, and a large portion in Vietnam.” When the coronavirus pandemic started in Wuhan in January, the crisis was seen as a China-specific problem from a supply chain perspective, and prompted a frantic search for alternative production and transport capacity in Vietnam, Mr Brun explained. Vietnam’s own reliance on China for raw materials and components quickly materialised, however, resulting in the start of delays and production challenges. “In a survey conducted by CEL at the end of March, 83% of companies in the physical value chain in Vietnam, including retailers, transporters, traders and manufacturers, had suffered supply issues over the past two months,” he said. “And 47% of them had issues specifically with Chinese suppliers, a large majority of which was over missing raw materials.” Mr Brun said manufacturers and retailers’ current sales volumes were too low to absorb fixed costs, leaving thousands of businesses with negative margins and thinning cash reserves.

Supply chain news in brief

Good news section

99 year old world war 2 veteran Capt. Tom Moore has so far managed to raise £5m ($6.25m USD, €5.72m EUR) in donations to the NHS - the BBC says that Capt. Tom Moore is currently in the middle of completing 100 laps of his garden (25 metres in length) before his 100th birthday at the end of April. Mr Moore was born in Keighley, West Yorkshire and trained as a civil engineer before enlisting in the army for World War Two, rising to captain and serving in India and Burma. NHS Charities Together, which will benefit from the funds, said it was "truly inspired and humbled". Nearly 170,000 people from around the world have donated money to his fundraising page since it was set up last week. Mr Moore began raising funds to thank the "magnificent" NHS staff who helped him with treatment for cancer and a broken hip. If you’re interested in supporting him his fundraising page is here.


Several asked if they can send me $/£/€ via Patreon (in some cases because I've saved them time or money, others for no reason at all). I don't need the cash (that's lovely though) but food bank charities are getting really hit hard with all this panic buying. Please consider giving whatever you'd have given me to a foodbank charity instead:
Thanks in advance for any donations you give. If there's foodbank charities in your country and it's not listed above, please suggest it and I will include it going forward.
submitted by Fwoggie2 to supplychain [link] [comments]

Covid-19 update Friday 24th April

Good morning from the UK. It’s Friday 24th April. My marigold seeds have taken off and are starting to sprout secondary stage leaves (marigolds are good companion plants; they ward off various pests in a vegetable garden whilst they can also be good sacrificial plants should a slug manage to somehow breach our electric barrier). Meanwhile, the first of my wife’s radishes seeds is starting to emerge from the compost she put in a recycled milk carton tetrapak a few days ago; she’s very excited by this. Advance warning, today’s post is a bit food supply chain heavy. Happy Friday everybody.

Virus news in depth

AP Story from Tuesday 21st April: UN food agency chief: World on brink of `a hunger pandemic’ - The head of the U.N. food agency warned Tuesday that, as the world is dealing with the coronavirus pandemic, it is also “on the brink of a hunger pandemic” that could lead to “multiple famines of biblical proportions” within a few months if immediate action isn’t taken. World Food Program Executive Director David Beasley told the U.N. Security Council that even before COVID-19 became an issue, he was telling world leaders that “2020 would be facing the worst humanitarian crisis since World War II.” That’s because of wars in Syria, Yemen and elsewhere, locust swarms in Africa, frequent natural disasters and economic crises including in Lebanon, Congo, Sudan and Ethiopia, he said. Beasley said today 821 million people go to bed hungry every night all over the world, a further 135 million people are facing “crisis levels of hunger or worse,” and a new World Food Program analysis shows that as a result of COVID-19 an additional 130 million people “could be pushed to the brink of starvation by the end of 2020.” He said in the video briefing that WFP is providing food to nearly 100 million people on any given day, including “about 30 million people who literally depend on us to stay alive.”
(Cont’d) Beasley, who is recovering from COVID-19, said if those 30 million people can’t be reached, “our analysis shows that 300,000 people could starve to death every single day over a three-month period” — and that doesn’t include increased starvation due to the coronavirus. “In a worst-case scenario, we could be looking at famine in about three dozen countries, and in fact, in 10 of these countries we already have more than one million people per country who are on the verge of starvation,” he said. According to WFP, the 10 countries with the worst food crises in 2019 were Yemen, Congo, Afghanistan, Venezuela, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Syria, Sudan, Nigeria and Haiti. He pointed to a sharp drop in overseas remittances that will hurt countries such as Haiti, Nepal and Somalia; a loss of tourism revenue which, for example, will damage Ethiopia where it accounts for 47 percent of total exports; and the collapse of oil prices which will have a significant impact in lower-income countries like South Sudan where oil accounts for almost 99 percent of total exports.

The Gulf Times takes a different slant on the story: ‘Instead of coronavirus, the hunger will kill us’; COVID-19 brings fears of a global food crisis - In Kibera, the largest slum in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, people desperate to eat set off a stampede during a recent giveaway of flour and cooking oil, leaving scores injured and two people dead. The coronavirus has sometimes been called an equaliser because it has sickened both rich and poor, but when it comes to food, the commonality ends. It is poor people, including large segments of poorer nations, who are now going hungry and facing the prospect of starving. “The coronavirus has been anything but a great equaliser,” said Asha Jaffar, a volunteer who brought food to families in the Nairobi slum of Kibera after the fatal stampede. “It’s been the great revealer, pulling the curtain back on the class divide and exposing how deeply unequal this country is.” Already, 135 million people had been facing acute food shortages, but now with the pandemic, 130 million more could go hungry in 2020, said Arif Husain, chief economist at the World Food Program, a UN agency. Altogether, an estimated 265 million people could be pushed to the brink of starvation by year’s end. “We’ve never seen anything like this before,” Husain said. “It wasn’t a pretty picture to begin with, but this makes it truly unprecedented and uncharted territory.”
(Cont’d) There is no shortage of food globally, or mass starvation from the pandemic yet continues the Gulf Times article. But logistical problems in planting, harvesting and transporting food will leave poor countries exposed in the coming months, especially those reliant on imports, said Johan Swinnen, director general of the International Food Policy Research Institute in Washington. While the system of food distribution and retailing in rich nations is organised and automated, he said, systems in developing countries are “labour intensive,” making “these supply chains much more vulnerable to COVID-19 and social distancing regulations.” On a recent evening, hundreds of migrant workers, who have been stuck in New Delhi after a lockdown was imposed in March with little warning, sat under the shade of a bridge waiting for food to arrive. The Delhi government has set up soup kitchens, yet workers like Nihal Singh go hungry as the throngs at these centres have increased in recent days. “Instead of coronavirus, the hunger will kill us,” said Singh, who was hoping to eat his first meal in a day.

Coronavirus-driven CO2 shortage threatens US food, water and beer supply, officials say - The Guardian reports that there is an emerging shortage of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) according to a Washington state emergency planning document. The document, a Covid-19 situation report produced by the State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC), contains a warning from the state’s office of drinking water (ODW) about difficulties in obtaining CO2, which is essential for the process of water treatment. The document says that the ODW is “still responding to [that day’s] notification of a national shortage of CO2”. It continues: “Several [water plants] had received initial notification from their vendors that their supply would be restricted to 33% of normal.” It further warns: “So far utilities have been able to make the case that they are considered essential to critical infrastructure and have been returned to full supply. However, we want to ask if CISA [the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency] can assess this through their contacts, if this is sustainable given the national shortage.”
(Cont’d) Asked to clarify the nature of this problem, ODW director Mike Means said in an email that his agency had first learned of potential problems when Seattle public utilities were “contacted by their vendor Airgas who supplied a copy of a Force Majeure notice”, warning them that their CO2 order would be reduced due to pandemic-related shortages. Force majeure is a contractual defense that allows parties to escape liability for contracts in the case of events – such as a pandemic – that could not be reasonably foreseen. In this case, Means wrote, “Airgas informed in their notice that they would only be able to do 80% of their normal service but subsequent discussions said to expect more like 33%”. At this point, he added, “we reached out to understand if this was a WA specific problem or national. We quickly understood it to be a national issue.”
(Cont’d) ODW had then contacted federal agencies such as CISA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (Fema) and industry bodies such as the Association of State Drinking Water Authorities (ASDWA). The main reason for national shortages, according to the CEO of the Compressed Gas Association (CGA), Rich Gottwald, is a ramping down of ethanol production. “Back in the summertime, the [Trump] administration exempted some gasoline manufacturers from using ethanol. Then we had Russia and Saudi Arabia flooding the market with cheap gasoline. All of that led to an oversupply of ethanol,” Gottwald said. “As ethanol manufacturers were ramping down because there wasn’t a market for their product, along comes Covid-19, which meant people weren’t driving anywhere”, he added. This led to plant closures, including among the 50 specialized plants that collect CO2 for the food and beverage market. Gottwald’s association, along with a number of associations representing food and beverage industries, which together use 77% of food-grade CO2, issued a joint warning to the federal government about the shortage. In an open letter to the vice-president, Mike Pence, the coalition warns: “Preliminary data show that production of CO2 has decreased by approximately 20%, and experts predict that CO2 production may be reduced by 50% by mid-April.” It continues: “A shortage in CO2 would impact the US availability of fresh food, preserved food and beverages, including beer production.”

The 'land army' needed to keep the UK's food supply chain going as thousands of tonnes of food risks going to waste - ITV has done a piece on the UK farming supply chain. Farmers are desperate for help. Without their usual influx of migrant workers from the EU, thousands of tonnes of food risk going to waste in fields up and down the country, just as the summer crops come into season. Every year our farming industry needs 90,000 seasonal workers. Like Robyn, many have put themselves forward - but in no way near the numbers needed. Others are finding the application process hard to navigate. Mark Thorogood, whose family have run the Essex farm for three generations, says it’s a perilous time for the food supply chain. "If we can't get the labour – it doesn’t get picked. That’s the crux of it", he said. Meanwhile, the charity The Food Foundation claims more than one and a half million Britons are going without food for at least a day because of the pandemic and three million have experienced hunger since the lockdown. On top of all that - the reality that nearly 50% of our food comes from abroad. With the numbers of ships crossing the Channel reduced and port workers hit by the virus, this is now under threat too. So could this crisis see a permanent change in how we feed our nation? The country's leading voice on food security, Professor Tim Lang gave us a grave warning: "The entire world food system is being disrupted. More disruptions are coming. Plantings not happening, food being wasted. "Britain only produces about 50% of its food - the country that can only half feed itself has got to wake up". (Personal note: this is why I’m putting effort into growing veg)

Virus news in brief

Sources: The Guardian, CNN or (to get an alternative spin) Radio New Zealand

Supply chain news in depth

Hidden threat: Japan only has a 2-week stockpile of LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) - If supplies stop, it will cause major power supply problems in the country says Nikkei’s Asian review which has an article highlighting the continuing energy supply chain vulnerability in Japan ever since the Fukushima nuclear disaster. It takes about one month to ship LNG from the Middle East to Japan explains the article but if the coronavirus outbreak prevents ships from docking in Japan it could have a big impact on the country's power supply. The physical properties of LNG mean it is poorly suited for long-term storage hence the country only holding a two-week stockpile. Despite this, the country depends on the fuel for 40% of its electric power generation needs, and all of the LNG it uses is imported from the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Tokyo Bay, which stretches across the prefectures of Chiba, Tokyo and Kanagawa, is Japan's most important LNG power generation hub. JERA operates many of the power plants there, all of which run on LNG. Accounting for about 30% of Japan's total LNG power generation, these plants produce 26 million kilowatts of electricity. If, for instance, the coronavirus was to force these plants to stop, the Greater Tokyo area would immediately lose its power supply (Personal note: that’s a population of approx 38.5m people).
(Cont’d) Today, LNG is a pillar of Japan's electricity. Before the March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami in Japan, LNG made up 28% of the country's power generation. That increased to 40% in fiscal 2017 as the nation's nuclear power plants went off grid, one after the other, following the Fukushima nuclear crisis. While some of Japan's nuclear plants have come back online, based on the strictest standards in the world, only three of the 10 electric power companies have been able to do so. Moreover, the coronavirus is inching closer and closer to the nuclear plants. Recently, a contractor working at the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant in the southern prefecture of Saga tested positive for the virus and construction at the site was stopped temporarily. Japan has traditionally tried to maintain a diverse mixture of power sources -- including nuclear, LNG, fossil fuels and renewable energy -- due to its reliance on imports as an island nation. "It is highly unbalanced to depend close to half of our energy on LNG alone," an official at the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry concedes. With shipments arriving constantly, a few missed shipments will not immediately signal a crisis. But an extended cutoff will spell trouble for the country.
(Cont’d) Japan was already facing a power shortage this year, "so the timing is very bad," said a power industry source. The Sendai nuclear power plant in Kagoshima Prefecture was shut down last month because it failed to meet antiterrorism standards. The No. 3 reactor at the Ikata nuclear power plant in Ehime Prefecture is offline following a court injunction. The number of nuclear reactors in operation this year is expected to temporarily fall by half from nine, so Japan cannot rely heavily on nuclear power. Japan's energy self-sufficiency stands at about 10%, well below the 40% for food. The movement to shift away from carbon has led to a backlash against domestic coal-fired power plants, so dependence on LNG could rise further. One reason that Tokyo Electric is rushing to restart its Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plant in Niigata Prefecture is because "heavy concentration in LNG power in Tokyo Bay is a major risk to the stable supply of power," according to an official at the utility. The coronavirus pandemic is testing whether Japan's government and utilities can diversify energy sources to prepare against the risks that threaten supplies.

USA meat packing plant Covid-19 problems worse than originally thought - A rash of coronavirus outbreaks at dozens of meatpacking plants across the nation is far more extensive than previously thought, according to an exclusive review of cases by USA TODAY and the Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting. More than 150 of America’s largest meat processing plants operate in counties where the rate of coronavirus infection is already among the nation’s highest, based on the media outlets’ analysis of slaughterhouse locations and county-level COVID-19 infection rates. These facilities represent more than 1 in 3 of the nation’s biggest beef, pork and poultry processing plants. Rates of infection around these plants are higher than those of 75% of other U.S. counties, the analysis found.
(Cont’d) While experts say the industry has thus far maintained sufficient production despite infections in at least 2,200 workers at 48 plants, there are fears that the number of cases could continue to rise and that meatpacking plants will become the next disaster zones. "Initially our concern was long-term care facilities," said Gary Anthone, Nebraska's chief medical officer, in a Facebook Live video Sunday. “If there's one thing that might keep me up at night, it's the meat processing plants and the manufacturing plants." Factory workers, unions, and even managers say the federal government – including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration – has done little more than issue non-enforceable guidance. On its website, for example, the CDC has released safety guidelines for critical workers and businesses, which primarily promote common-sense measures of sanitization and personal distancing. USA Today says that state health departments have also taken a backseat role in all but a few places. There’s more in the article here.

Supply chain news in brief

Good news

Meet the 12-year-old who rode 36 hours on Zwift alongside Geraint Thomas - The Tour De France winner and double Olympic gold medalist earlier this week did 3 12 hour cycling sessions to raise money for the UK’s NHS (National Health Service), eventually earning £350,000. Alongside him rode a 12 year old Mak Larkin who by the end of the 36 hours of cycling had managed to cycle 740km (460 miles). Proud mum Lynsey told Cycling Weekly: “Lockdown was really getting to Mak, being that he was so eager to race this season as it was his first year at national level road and mountain bike cross country. “He saw Geraint’s 36-hour challenge and told us he wanted to do some of it with him for something to do and to support the NHS. He then told us a few hours later that he wanted to do the full challenge and wanted to raise some money himself. At time of writing his fundraising page (also for the NHS) stands at £5,772 (approx €6,605 or $7,111 USD). Cycling weekly has more here.

A toddler has been able to hear for the first time after a groundbreaking remote switch-on of her cochlear implants - The BBC reports that audiologists in Southampton activated the devices for 18-month-old Margarida Cibrao-Roque via the internet as they are unable to see patients in person due to Covid-19 measures. Professor Helen Cullington said the procedure took "technical creativity". Margarida's father said it had "opened a big window" for his daughter. Margarida, who has been deaf since birth because she has Ushers Syndrome Type One, had received her cochlear implants in an earlier operation. Staff at the University of Southampton's Auditory Implant Service (USAIS) used specialist software and were able to monitor progress via videolink to the family's home in Camberley, Surrey. During the switch-on levels of electrical stimulation were gradually built up and Margarida's responses were constantly monitored. It is hoped her new cochlear implants will, over time, help her to hear and to communicate more easily. Margarida's mother, Joana Cibrao said the team were "just brilliant and made it happen" despite the lockdown restrictions. "The possibility of Margarida calling me mummy one day would mean the world," she said.


Several asked if they can send me $/£/€ via Patreon (in some cases because I've saved them time or money, others for no reason at all). I don't need the cash (that's lovely though) but as you may have read above, food bank charities are getting really hit hard with all this panic buying. Please consider giving whatever you'd have given me to a foodbank charity instead:
Thanks in advance for any donations you give. If there's foodbank charities in your country and it's not listed above, please suggest it and I will include it going forward.
submitted by Fwoggie2 to supplychain [link] [comments]

Masterpost on the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a key player in 20th century geopolitics, yet many people in the West know remarkably little about it. Socialists and non-socialists alike are often extremely uneducated about this particular country, and its various achievements; often all that is known is that it was led by Tito, one of the most popular heads of state in the 20th century. While this is a useful piece of information, it is hardly a sufficient socialist analysis of this great nation. Let us thus examine Yugoslavia in detail, and make a proper analysis.
All sources are included at the end, to avoid scattering links throughout the post. Whenever I quote from one of these sources, I will indicate which source I am referencing, so that you can check the original if you would like to.
The University of Rochester gives the following overall assessment of the communist era in Yugoslavia:
The history of Yugoslavia since 1945 embraces a period of rapid economic, political, and social modernization reflected in urban and industrial growth, improvements in literacy and economic well-being, changes in the traditional patriarchal family structure, moderation of ethnic hostilities, and integration into the international economy. However, in dialectical fashion, it also embraces a period of economic decline and intense ethnic reaction. In a very real sense, the route to the collapse of the Yugoslav federation, like the collapse of the Soviet federation, was paved by the policy toward nationalities that each had pursued, but it was precipitated by involvement in the global economy.
Now that we have a brief impression of the rise and fall of the nation, let us go into a bit more detail.
A Brief Look at Pre-War Yugoslavia
In order to understand the achievements of socialism in Yugoslavia, we must first understand what conditions were like before socialism. The University of Rochester gives this assessment of pre-war Yugoslavia:
The country remained largely undeveloped throughout the interwar years. Seventy-seven percent of the population were peasants. Illiteracy rates of those older than 10 ranged between 83.8% in Macedonia and 8.8% in Slovenia, with the national figure being 51.5% in 1921. Mortality and fertility were both high, epidemics were common despite innovative programs created by Andrija Stampar, the Croatian public health leader, and the government was ineffective in providing preventive and curative health services as well as needed infrastructure. High taxes and declining agricultural prices during the depression years of the 1930's may have contributed to the peasants’ hostility to the government and to their support for the Partisans during World War II, which was as much a civil war as a war against the German invaders.
According to the Helsinki Committee:
The overall social development of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1941 was overwhelmingly slow, so that the country was at the lower end of European trends (population poverty, illiteracy, low level of health culture, poor mobility, etc.), with a rather closed perspective... In the inter-war period, the housing infrastructure outside cities was either poor or non-existent, lacking electricity, water and sewage connections. Living conditions in municipal workers’ or peripheral settlements were poor.
In short, pre-war Yugoslavia was an economically underdeveloped nation, plagued by high levels of illiteracy, high mortality rates, low life expectancy, and epidemics of disease. Now that we understand a bit more about the state of things when the communists took over, let us now look at what they made of this situation.
Economic and Infrastructure Development
Before WWII (and the communist takeover), the economy in Yugoslavia was stagnant. According to the Helsinki Committee:
From 1921 to the outbreak of World War II, the country was not characterized by any exceptional economic progress. In that, however, it was no different from the majority of neighboring countries, whether it be, for example, Greece, Hungary or Bulgaria. Partly this was the consequence of demographic growth, but since we are talking about several decades, it is clear that on the whole the economy was stagnant and that it is not possible to talk about any significant progress in relation to economic development on Yugoslav territory in the time before the establishment of the common state.
After the communist takeover, a new economic system was set up, based on workers' self-management within state-owned enterprises. This system is described by the Encyclopedia Britannica in their article on Yugoslavia:
After 1945 the communist government nationalized large landholdings, industrial enterprises, public utilities, and other resources and launched a strenuous process of industrialization. After a split with the Soviet Union in 1948, Yugoslavia had by the 1960's come to place greater reliance on market mechanisms. A distinctive feature of this new “Yugoslav system” was "workers' self-management" which reached its fullest form in the 1976 Law on Associated Labour. Under this law, individuals participated in Yugoslav enterprise management through the work organizations into which they were divided. Work organizations might be either “Basic Organizations of Associated Labour” (the subdivisions of a single enterprise) or “Complex Organizations of Associated Labour” uniting different segments of an overall activity (e.g., manufacture and distribution). Each work organization was governed by a workers’ council, which elected a board of management to run the enterprise.
This system led to dramatic economic growth. According to the Helsinki Committee:
Development in the years after World War II, if we put aside the years of the Soviet blockade, is characterized by significant economic growth and development, if the latter is expressed, again, by the per capita GDP. While in the first twenty years or so the GDP per capita increased just under 40 percent, in the period from 1952 to 1979 it increased just under 5 times. As in both cases it was a matter of rebuilding the country after great war devastation, there is no doubt that Yugoslavia after World War II achieved an incomparably better economic development than it did after World War I.
The country underwent a great process of urbanization under the communists:
A great wave of urbanization took place in the second half of the century when settlements with larger residential buildings and skyscrapers were built. New cities or larger urban complexes, such as New Belgrade, New Zagreb, New Gorica, Velenje and Split 3, were also built. From the aspect of urban planning, the reconstruction of Skopje after the disastrous earthquake of 1963 was especially successful. These new settlements were based on contemporary urban planning and architectural concepts such as residential buildings with social amenities, surrounded by green areas and having no direct access to major roads. Kindergartens and schools, parks, health centers, trading and small-scale craft facilities were also built according to plan.
The dismal housing situation was improved dramatically, as was access to essential services (electricity, water, sanitation, etc.):
Each year, from the early 1960's through the 1980's, 100–150 thousand apartments were built and one third of them was built by the socially-owned sector. These apartments were given to workers on the basis of their occupancy right acquired in the enterprises and institutions where they were employed. A survey shows that in the years of peak housing construction, that is, during the late 1970's and early 1980's, all three-member worker households had electricity, almost all of them had water and sewage connections, one third had central heating and eight out of ten had a bathroom and toilet in the apartment.
Unfortunately, the Yugoslav economy eventually began to stagnate, a problem which was made worse by the interference of the IMF, as well as the inflamed regional tensions which resurfaced after the death of Tito. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica:
Inflation and unemployment emerged as serious problems, particularly during the 1980's, and productivity remained low. Such defects in the system were patched over by massive and uncoordinated foreign borrowing, but after 1983 the International Monetary Fund demanded extensive economic restructuring as a precondition for further support. The conflict over how to meet this demand resurrected old animosities between the wealthier northern and western regions, which were required to contribute funds to federally administered development programs, and the poorer southern and eastern regions, where these funds were frequently invested in relatively inefficient enterprises or in unproductive prestige projects. Such differences contributed directly to the disintegration of the second Yugoslavia.
Despite this, the rapid economic growth generated by the socialist system in Yugoslavia remains impressive, and its eventual fall serves a warning about the terrible dangers of relying excessively on foreign investment, especially from bourgeois institutions.
Healthcare Achievements
Pre-war Yugoslavia was beset by terrible healthcare conditions, a situation which was only made worse by WWII. According to the Helsinki Committee:
As regards the health care of the population in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, it was at the lowest level according to the European standards. According to 1930 data, there were 12,204 medical personnel members, including 4,545 doctors and 208 dentists. There were also 172 hospitals and 22,895 hospital beds. In Yugoslavia up to 1939, there were 18,193 medical personnel members, including 5,131 doctors and 380 dentists, implying that there was one doctor per 3,060 inhabitants and one dentist per 41,324 inhabitants. Of this number of doctors, 927 worked in 169 hospitals with 23,534 beds (only 429 more than twenty or so years earlier).
As a result, the communists made the provision of healthcare a key aspect of their policy. According to NYU:
Health policy in the former Yugoslavia was based on the promise of growth: expansion of existing health facilities and construction of new ones, an increase in the supply of health care workers and drugs and, ultimately, an improvement in health status. The promise was repeated so often that people came to consider such social benefits "to be their natural due," a major premise of socialism.
This resulted in enormous increases in the health conditions of the country:
By 1978, the number of hospital beds, in comparison to 1939, tripled from 19 to 60 beds per 10,000 population; the number of medical schools rose from three to eleven, resulting in a five-fold increase in the number of physicians; and health insurance was extended to cover 82 percent of the population. The infant mortality rate of 35.6 per 1,000 population in 1978 was only one-fourth of the pre-World War II figure. Moreover, diphtheria, malaria and typhus had been eliminated.
These improvements are also discussed by the Helsinki Committee:
In socialist Yugoslavia, the situation radically improved. Up to 1950, there were only 5,138 doctors and 196 dentists, while already in 1952 there were 6,548 doctors (since the first generations of post-war medical students had graduated), while the number of dentists decreased to 184. Until 1987, the Yugoslav population was treated by 43,869 doctors and 9,232 dentists, which means that there was one doctor per 533 inhabitants and one dentist per 2,535 inhabitants. In 1950, compared to 1939, the number of hospital beds increased more than twofold – there were 53,760 hospital beds. By 1960, this number had also increased more than twofold, so that there were 102,329 hospital beds, while until 1988 this number increased to 142,957.
Healthcare access was expanded across the entire country:
In addition, thanks to the development of the road network, better communications and different social policy, health care became accessible to a significantly greater number of people. Apart from doctors, the number of other medical personnel also increased. According to the 1962 data, there was a total of 112,946 medical workers; in 1975 – 193,374, and in 1987 – 303,105... Understandably, the most advanced medical services were provided in urban centers, but spa rehabilitation centers were being developed and basic health care also reached rural areas. Until 1989, in addition to hospitals, 8,384 general and specialist medical centers and 4, 425 dental surgeries were opened.
Infant and child mortality were significantly reduced:
The improvement of state-sponsored social care for the population also resulted in a great decline of infant and child mortality rates due to which the Kingdom of Yugoslavia had ranked among the most backward European countries.
Life expectancy was increased dramatically:
Life expectancy was also significantly increasing. In 1931, the life expectancy for females and males was 46.1 and 45.1 years respectively. Already in 1948, the life expectancy levels had increased to 53 years for females and 48.6 years for males... Up to 1981, the life expectancy at the Yugoslav level increased to 73.2 for females and 67.7 for males. Its increase continued, so that in 1990 the expected life expectancy for females in Yugoslavia was 74.9 and for males 69.1 years, whereby regional differences were reduced.
The mortality rate declined rapidly under the communists; eventually, mortality rates in Yugoslavia became lower than those in Western Europe:
Finally, the mortality rate also declined: from 21 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants in 1921 to 15 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants until 1939. After 1945, the mortality rate continued to decline from the maximum 14.2 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants to the minimum 8.1 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants in 1966. At the end of the observation period, the mortality rate was 9 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants, thus being lower than in Germany (9.2), France (9.3) or Britain (11.2).
Note that although there had been some reduction in the mortality rate under the pre-communist government, the improvement was much faster under the communists, and it coincided with drastic improvements to infant mortality and life expectancy when compared to the pre-communist period.
To summarize, the Helsinki Committee says:
Nutrition and hygiene greatly influenced the health of the population... The post-war development of medicine and health institutions made possible a greater availability of doctors and an almost five-fold increase in the number of hospital beds (in 1986 there were about 143,000), while all services were covered by mandatory health insurance. Regular medical check-ups and mandatory vaccination of the population were also organised. Occupational medicine and an occupational safety system provided greater security for the employed. Pensions and homes for the elderly instilled confidence in end-of-life care. Thanks to better health and hygiene as well as improved socio-economic conditions, the estimated life expectancy for those born in the early 1980's was 68 years for men and 73 for women, that is, twenty or so years longer than that for the generations born in the 1940's. For the same reasons, infant mortality declined from 143 per thousand in the 1930's to 27 per thousand in the mid-1980's, ranging from 12.6 per thousand in Slovenia to 54.3 per thousand in Kosovo.
The overall advances made by the communist government in Yugoslavia are remarkable.
Educational Achievements
Another area in which the communists dramatically improved Yugoslavia is that of education. Pre-war Yugoslavia was extremely backwards with regards to education. According to the Helsinki Committee:
In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, despite specific efforts to raise the educational level of the population, no significant breakthroughs in this field were made. In 1921, the number of illiterate persons older than 10 years was even 4,402,059 (50.5 percent of the population), while by the 1931 census their number had increased to 4,408,471 (44.6 percent of the population older than 10 years).
After the communists took over during WWII, the situation rapidly and dramatically improved:
According to the 1948 census already, this number was considerably smaller – 3,162,941 (25.4 percent of the population). This decrease was the result of a mass literacy campaign during the war and in its aftermath... considerable efforts were made towards educating the population, so that the number of illiterate persons older than 10 years continually declined, accompanied by an increase in the total population, so that in 1961 there were 3,066,165 (21 percent) such persons; in 1971 – 2,549,571 (15.1 percent) and in 1981 – 1,780,902 (9.5 percent). Of this number 1,576,238 were aged over 39 or, in other words, born before 1945.
Access to education was drastically expanded by the communists:
After 1945, the educational network expanded rapidly, both in terms of the number of schools and in terms of teaching diversity, while the number of compulsory years of elementary education increased and in 1958 compulsory eight-year elementary education was introduced. In the territory of Yugoslavia in 1946, there were 10,666 elementary schools with 1,441,679 students and 23,270 teachers which, considering the number of teachers, was a big decline compared to 1939. By 1975/78, the number of elementary schools in Yugoslavia had grown to 13,442, but after that it started to decline, mostly due to the merger of smaller schools, which was made possible thanks to improved transport and greater student mobility.
In short, the educational situation in Yugoslavia was dramatically improved during the socialist period, with a drastic reduction in illiteracy and a massive expansion in the educational network across the country.
Women's Rights in Yugoslavia
Pre-war Yugoslavia held a strongly reactionary view of women's rights, which was rapidly changed in the socialist period. According to the Helsinki Committee:
Women’s emancipation in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was the result of individual efforts, while in socialist Yugoslavia it was the result of an organized policy. Although a feminist movement existed in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, it remained on the margins of social influence, while the status of women was best expressed in the Civil Code under which a married woman was denied legal capacity. This anachronous legal provision was abolished as early as 1946, with termination of the validity of the Civil Code.
The communists actively promoted women's emancipation:
Women understandably obtained the right to vote, marital relations were liberalized, the political activism of women was promoted through the Anti-Fascist Womens’ Front and other mass organizations, and women were increasingly assuming social and political functions, while the legal solutions in all spheres of life tried to ensure gender equality. A considerable increase in the number of divorces can also be considered an expression of women’s emancipation.
Women's educational access improved dramatically:
At literacy courses conducted during the period 1948–1950 as much as 70 percent of attendees were women, although the literacy and schooling of female children met with resistance in conservative environments, mostly for religious and patriarchal reasons. From 1921 to 1981, the percentage of illiterate women declined from 60 percent to 14.7 percent.
Women were integrated into the economy, from which they had previously been largely excluded:
After 1945, the share of the male population in the economically active population was decreasing, while the rate of the economically active population within the female population was relatively stable and ranged from 30.7 percent to 35.1 percent. This means that the absolute number of the economically active female population (and thus the share of the economically active population) was increasing in proportion to an increase in the share of the female population in the total population. However, this was not the case with the male population. This is a very credible testimony to women’s emancipation compared to the prewar period, which was especially evident after 1961.
The communists thus made a number of enormous improvements to the status of women's rights in Yugoslavia.
The communists in Yugoslavia succeeded in drastically improving life for the people. The economy was greatly developed, infrastructure was expanded dramatically, and social policy was greatly advanced. The socialist era was a time of tremendous improvement and hope for the people. As the Helsinki Committee puts it:
This picture of the increase in the standard of living will become more complete if one takes into account the achieved level of technological development, high health and hygiene standards and higher educational level of the population. Should the question of progress be posed from the aspect of everyday life, it would be reflected in the wish for electricity, paved roads, a comfortable apartment or house, a marriage of love and not an arranged marriage, fertile land, job security, as well as the wish for the children to be better off in the future. It is precisely these issues that are conversation topics in the prize-winning feature film Train Without a Timetable (Veljko Bulajić, 1959): “There is also electricity and a state road over there, and you can have a radio in the house. It can play and sing for you all day long! Just like in a dream...” This dream was part of the changes brought by the 20th century to everyday life, including increased opportunities and needs. Yugoslavia was attuning the rhythm of the century to its own development level and political priorities.
That's something which we can all appreciate.
Source List
submitted by flesh_eating_turtle to communism [link] [comments]

i don't like doing this but here we are

this should be 10 thousand words
nuance inn abundant dough firefighter crutch separate impress thank appointment pure cunning tiptoe win pedestrian routine evening sunrise alarm period pole sculpture raise architecture authorise fire nest want remunerate flawed restaurant pen soar intensify nature country atmosphere lock nonremittal doubt category obese wing seal aunt withdraw flock score father champion outlet suspect painter explain treatment first-hand feminine radiation go disco game frozen pigeon lodge contrary telephone relinquish feast pilot road policy curriculum hour tension sharp recovery resignation explode snub solve cotton face branch vein complain government jungle see spare grant experience ground appreciate portion food husband adoption capital journal gravel brag projection praise equation surround salt screen welcome settlement volcano federation thirsty basic clash tread twist sodium settle thick agency snatch display look belong ignorant eject folk highway march charismatic review industry chord secure visual ideal flush block height horizon wrist glass leaf detail attractive coat pause instal convenience flat white van jaw advertising steam artist theft recommendation care define program engineer requirement knife award survivor soldier standard disgrace sick pottery escape hotdog vegetarian tourist veil quiet class straw innocent essay calendar compose parallel burn bat holiday spider decorative viable dome glance bold soft belly raid slow extraterrestrial spill undertake cross egg particular acceptable flour leash spell factor cafe offender establish assault faithful domestic gas pedal privacy court wisecrack insert bill jam sector record giant gown hardship expertise gift south tight lost restoration filter pasture aquarium hobby view sail obligation majority appear fate top curtain inhibition album conception wriggle cute announcement corpse rob sin hard leader association horoscope wind weed pledge recruit jockey imperial enjoy credit scream equip unfair vote applaud sour retired haircut exaggerate glove circle passive bathroom encourage substitute investigation flash count assignment medicine ecstasy sting elephant executive teacher mild return pop radio penalty referee vigorous carpet read graze domination pneumonia reject affair makeup deck director restless troop definite replace absence guilt tell reduce concede sugar predator withdrawal offense satisfied normal relation level feature sleep blade dignity redeem fuel courtesy cooperate tired attack age bar consumption current dream rush card hospital seat reception origin pie crossing retreat deny handy tie condition letter charge doctor demonstrate ally salesperson threshold packet driver earthflax toll relationship match crop secretary model pan mushroom able decisive tire college allowance dentist angle pleasant mouth oppose rebellion cooperation revolutionary advocate ignore excess sword system positive plead functional chin drop criminal wire imposter lobby proud alive realism avenue clearance confuse scale direction fraction conversation sight straighten desk motivation taste reasonable gradient lesson production revival river panel entertainment reputation marriage butterfly foreigner finger tax trunk ethnic mistreat blue floor patient democratic beautiful short orientation omission charter ostracize just testify death suffer overeat proposal physics drug constituency addition edge development morale strikebreaker facility document wonder pin activate bronze sandwich surface matter ballet article high report health cheat modernize lip bargain hole understand tin ferry generation action notion theory unrest established prescription glory spirit worry communist goal cart disappoint convulsion stuff relax friend essential infection harass prison astonishing monopoly rumor relieve admiration king verdict take cattle node charm exception bounce camp heroin generate damage social tip motorcycle dine push undress club vain maze drum file invasion fish copper fool around beef wake differ presence art illness valid wear out hold stitch afford agriculture bless enhance computer virus pudding deter shower laborer include spite advantage administration harm slam eaux ambition noise official sex epicalyx policeman autonomy right wing firm cheek consumer format tree despise introduce century beach opponent sensation decoration tile singer admire pity manual governor selection restrain cage apple god yearn clock bundle composer reign sweep cream vegetation break in correspond consensus honor clerk minor gradual rain orbit trade basketball fee gap squash patience knowledge shatter character dimension wrestle pioneer motorist exposure microphone franchise protection voice goalkeeper drain fling indoor conscious password embrace root irony census convict user clinic major bend limited participate attachment cancel bolt strategic formal ratio form resist pollution perfume tidy twin radical monk funeral sheet shiver rock novel assumption trick fist relative continental hostile refund coin discount shot breathe brain fisherman banquet bind cottage charity shed mobile sensitivity ensure satisfaction economics ignite petty add captain course scene sigh registration despair sock coincidence responsibility trait bread linger scandal supplementary implication seller surprise rebel opposed penetrate matrix banner grandmother auction creation precision stable note hunting ask dedicate rehearsal portrait analysis revise employ boom entitlement request sketch virus expenditure workshop bomber panic steward stick violation monster constitution skip fit mind aluminium safety excavation learn hypothesis sun spray context lie shy iron diamond native healthy directory tolerant exclusive observer village concrete hand reduction drill general far reactor abridge ballot overall explicit claim mail carrier bedroom research designer terrace devote aware survey state create rank teach snarl run incentive shave school distance sum interface auditor exit sacred locate decrease triangle bag stain weapon north potential traction quaint put deficit modest ice arrow population terrify institution liability superintendent costume priority pillow tendency faint practical dressing shelter grain climb arrangement remember hilarious wrong gun right series collection dictate helpless girlfriend researcher cool runner outer confidence initiative proof menu senior title pattern address soup oak pierce whip hall script credit card mood waist contract congress lack accurate term miracle bulletin enlarge approve teenager shoot dorm deputy kid childish rational gravity frighten weigh analyst thaw economic flood plug football cable comfortable rainbow finished coach compromise publish terminal remain breakfast uncle fox print unlikely peel folklore fruit crash jealous green button unfortunate hero knit warm mountain manage pick accountant fever part global summit swear emphasis concession prevalence breed inspire producer dealer work out pat member depend prosecution affect layout combine gallon flag timber arrogant company symptom mathematics reporter order bloody slump demonstrator authority truth recognize field reward debate station cow likely ambiguous hen wheel underline interference ghost clay area item earwax discriminate shake credibility confine reference single strap pour draw looting home suggest freshman prince instruction rotten liver civilization battlefield cell phone scholar texture bacon hemisphere echo quarter fun pass deviation sustain dive value fill pump bottom soprano attention strip inspiration specimen chance election absorb mosaic deal popular dinner training remedy cinema coffin circulation continuation trust mislead artificial basin calculation legislation impact party pig smart moving index elect variation stumble hardware image notorious grand aloof cupboard transform dip computer chop cry plant retain horror safari rubbish affinity hill behave tactic air wage ribbon poem freight mainstream mixture active cucumber conscience lane dish overcharge beginning quotation office loss stubborn applied romantic pay recommend poetry rare number strict diameter slip earthquake license swarm receipt wear knock day whisper era shift train angel mask offspring demonstration drawing express greet serious justice amputate ignorance grace due embarrassment kitchen valley thesis partner tempt jurisdiction rugby live stem balance friendly width council ancestor cook athlete concert snap reckless psychology square prospect prediction video access retire endorse enter birthday herd proper dozen trainer evolution expectation weakness sign union thin frame total welfare tender mutter child consider peace bubble shadow paper enthusiasm temporary owe obscure brush lend posture lead flexible default black strong dynamic vessel minimize pony mark jelly deliver preference tear mass exemption crouch pumpkin empire serve declaration plan excitement interrupt acquisition mole ritual liberal secretion grass folk music stun peak dairy storm beard nose nonsense graduate instinct dog buffet student bush extreme variety meal representative window lamb hell behavior pound thread preoccupation guitar tool platform plaintiff navy begin nursery predict slant hypnothize fragrant officer revenge toss pipe palace satellite dare tone tycoon back harvest berry vat cancer betray hope drawer bare even module overwhelm reform knee invisible disposition lift candidate provincial throne witch stall resolution promote qualify tune deprivation liberty have jacket rabbit disagree whole cycle way sister body customer question silence fear give mourning smoke error groan contact useful trench topple payment fool joint dark trolley gasp anxiety hurl communication skate slice ash suite assessment fantasy boat throat adjust momentum sympathetic shop pit store lover stamp reconcile false jewel vertical breakdown AIDS abandon pluck family rhythm environmental mile appetite show tower attract attic wheat last countryside minimum residence retiree extort tongue spring interactive glimpse possibility tablet extinct gloom principle past paradox old dull apathy isolation sea advertise abbey recession galaxy main fan asset deer headquarters medieval urge reader eliminate freckle restrict carbon refrigerator protest classify approval stress split option acquaintance cover accent kick rub sell jury exempt disappear act clothes justify reluctance winner exploit guideline youth tube conventional horseshoe danger citizen increase brake stage monkey parameter key profound repetition brand detector variable short circuit shout map zone ministry mutual die organize wording text random minority moment link book trouble patch challenge spontaneous offset steak roll sticky foot perform accessible sheep close sniff final rest cheque objective multiply regular mosquito fashion follow throw discovery fork threaten study memorandum nationalist beer TRUE concentration illusion fare revolution bald opinion chimpanzee catch marine crusade practice disturbance chapter wine plane glare deficiency invite bury hair competition bow say lung truck anger cower clean leave constellation soul sample pray tenant element kidnap woman insight control heavy electron depression banana professional latest trend housing pull prove borrow stroll brave integration scatter helmet temple movie Mars qualified ice cream dragon embryo realize quantity roar net risk corn grip failure illustrate gene housewife silk recover memorial sweater channel feminist crude freighter appeal interest convince bride career sport twitch nuclear clarify excuse wrap work toast slide metal still distant reproduce blue jean ideology resident left slap heaven earthwax facade color-blind occupy stretch background flourish glacier stadium moral broken shark defendant fold rich inappropriate possible skeleton boot combination suspicion reason protect ruin junior budge characteristic brown feather arrange large history lid monstrous onion island civilian peasant oil rung linen cemetery listen hot departure dictionary critic spin plot frequency assembly blast clique variant oral harmony miserable favour audience technique dry virtue lonely professor margin law science loose president tease pace employee hook software sausage trial deprive difference superior curl ditch favourite treaty eat courtship slime appendix nomination halt legend injury poll package exact rally mechanical integrity traffic red punch slab comprehensive gaffe bark diplomat tick reflect difficulty sunshine marsh contradiction ban separation shallow debut dominant relevance recycle host bait elbow notebook like hover fairy keep east tragedy sow rifle fund rocket dilemma talk simplicity infect technology stop refer allocation method coast smell accumulation attitude cap cruel cabin vague crime fine planet contemporary wife harmful presentation discourage crisis victory extent captivate guerrilla primary tract racism list lump accept corner gear guard divorce band broccoli stake kneel inch reinforce inspector permission bay unique chemistry soil ample coma gesture homosexual approach post screw cope enfix flow ball mother make economist musical shelf switch agenda parking owner pool ivory twilight clue rate tense temptation hostility unity inject beg magnetic dismiss means new incident pavement impound sleeve heel ready solo compete premium ghostwriter ward effort unlike culture colleague fiction lunch security delicate case honest flower arrest spectrum arena size other colon spit porter punish horse structure highlight pension nightmare admission profession species average depart fax reverse barrel stimulation brick tournament prosecute awful cigarette jail torch landscape name compact watch empirical curve hierarchy strain alcohol problem fashionable lineage speed smile density intermediate collar freedom hiccup cabinet base city happen sphere seed war operational sink rough help person figure retailer plain pawn master magazine budget deadly castle fair salvation chest wealth glide neighbour contraction joystick presidential narrow agony fog write permanent rage orgy execute dependence prize dose chalk axis range indication cut dominate share environment provoke personal absorption investment call celebration move vision chocolate disaster taxi strange mayor incongruous lighter chew mist tank surgeon redundancy ceremony coerce lecture adopt dismissal crowd tradition raw medal proclaim save economy cooperative sense midnight slippery familiar headline favorable cereal leg delivery rotation introduction skilled excavate offensive cluster feedback visit financial loop mail destruction upset content rib frog hike trustee manufacturer landowner scramble orthodox splurge inhabitant fortune peanut arise original issue theater stunning finance feel nut norm develop insist degree mess heir depressed nap shell abstract annual chaos community lease safe difficult belief commerce tape licence accident support descent sand revive elaborate miscarriage ant ride sound meeting habitat exclude architect meat promotion salon absolute describe lick real exile point public brother casualty export continuous precede publisher immune section champagne use calf tail qualification suburb referral scan measure first passage kettle worth elegant fix fibre limit voyage implicit spy poor speech good full demand grow transparent subway ex cave drift player opposition expect summary voter jump precedent small handicap feeling register trance eagle bloodshed venture adult uniform burst color gold force strike chorus explosion seem orchestra embark quit merchant stand crevice pier systematic acute studio discrimination sensitive sulphur experienced source radiation sickness dribble calm advice retirement coincide stomach chain grateful patent unit extract resort contain mosque division basket free bother spot result Venus tissue hip page forecast abuse meaning coup resign confusion absent hallway border wild feed bland catalogue produce farewell neglect desire break fly fresh cold spokesperson project distortion replacement fast fireplace indirect conflict Bible hunter instrument price maid reliable lot mean engagement example rider long coalition convention tropical chart heat swing lily snail boy engine log conservation swell garbage fall buy impulse improve widen sailor hostage exhibition influence deep situation exceed repeat exercise royalty bowel acceptance pair Koran eye printer stock fossil formula loan expansion smash strength dress route reproduction publicity philosophy delete slogan information preparation glow row argument nun X-ray pastel transaction shock pack horn think arch evaluate management profit reservoir burial easy winter rescue rape graphic passion shareholder adventure need elapse scenario touch young patrol miner choke carve forest district pursuit ridge emotion assume education vehicle expand egg white torture answer seek regard abortion secular gossip railroad press stereotype carrot inflate flu siege path girl fight pepper dirty oven advance consultation decline myth extend coverage socialist crackpot crew robot confession table effect mix judge conservative tough thigh bite decay barrier fur gain waiter execution kidney remark stride pest cathedral constitutional recording unlawful capture west string hypothesize pitch storage session cellar second bitch grounds urgency overview cause craft spend mature piano constraint bracket proportion mercy role suppress pressure energy parade dialogue dangerous flesh wagon determine scratch self concept sickness personality favor battery foundation leadership television lake huge bucket release skin literature chauvinist conceive rear cutting consciousness emergency regulation shorts treasurer agree morning deteriorate genetic volunteer admit star accompany judgment hit agile copy fragment zero plagiarize test activity powder calorie benefit divide relief distort different habit provide fat mine grind adviser spoil productive soap progressive courage seasonal noble displace length dead house deposit salad banish linear fence provision shortage tiger end gregarious swallow sweat solid comment glasses anniversary machinery quest layer lemon necklace camera breast promise glue society ladder change laser compensation will bulb choose snow correction well competence line room draft contempt econobox crystal manner damn discuss meadow organ performance pardon innovation subject fail wardrobe conductor staff trip shame incapable harsh install pot eyebrow publication muggy riot reveal unaware respect seminar blackmail ear shoulder labour improvement wolf wreck physical drink round swim date forge half feign imagine love temperature consolidate launch flight memory needle bee lay murder trap try worker canvas intervention trouser kit infinite reality scheme decade transfer Europe preach understanding flatware human body donor night candle minister herb core hurt exploration warn vegetable eavesdrop fraud detective digress bishop theorist collect houseplant conviction eternal sermon movement mud syndrome gas warning extension ranch cater power addicted negligence beam estimate race yard miss check fastidious defeat cat battle kinship relate acquit snack stream commitment distributor duty penny snuggle ordinary ambiguity mold falsify suntan rule reliance volume speculate survival summer guarantee bus lose tray statement sentence incredible trivial buttocks apology correspondence dawn blank fascinate wander double particle struggle committee response bang negative ton hay market insure unpleasant cast scrape ethics archive insurance word revoke bell weave spread bathtub assertive stool open loot biology bullet concentrate diet thought shaft denial crosswalk wall waterfall haunt compartment treat cousin product fame anticipation creep opera operation funny loyalty version tribute cash disappointment design comfort achievement tribe classroom coffee function heart tasty cultivate ticket chicken gate baseball hammer initial integrated perfect cake orange leak defend middle achieve purpose prejudice conglomerate year old age velvet circulate intelligence judicial wilderness silver low can future waste biography import bike hear cup stay ego elite meet film squeeze dividend space neck consideration world brainstorm garage ring mouse partnership basis bench wedding biscuit discipline museum abnormal bake transmission estate dollar voucher cultural fuss killer drown merit fluctuation sacrifice cane available equal perforate confront tent clear fitness bond mystery literacy piece arm definition cord thumb digital marathon load asylum notice pile monarch sweet helicopter fade compound related bed property tap chip laboratory uncertainty talented queen drive front morsel endure reserve choice lion entertain hate greeting grudge lounge forward late spine threat ankle distribute custody wave disclose man criticism dilute utter know trace message responsible gem application mastermind bad doll daughter witness wood water enemy agent steel shine lace intention entry timetable week blonde coal quality missile great formation guest turn decide distinct offer position knot object language tumour staircase commemorate leaflet negotiation aisle corruption photocopy occasion delay obstacle pleasure fleet remind outlook lamp jet terms outline transition moon possession season unanimous conclusion prosper pyramid prayer censorship aspect foster visible job medium track team misplace respectable complex thrust urine inflation polish float warrant queue prevent drag faith walk computing joke identification creed land therapist money board reflection appoint writer plastic marble sentiment shape straight translate collapse carry pain occupation drama deport hang play chair multimedia exchange amber lawyer disability cheese column reptile complete poison critical insistence cylinder quote dialect conspiracy weight misery closed genuine bank common rise private dump magnitude certain aviation thanks church bet grimace veteran craftsman golf relaxation observation amuse mechanism sequence animal network deserve place jest frank garlic rotate seize lifestyle prisoner chimney discover aid premature disk diagram salmon counter constant carriage formulate car willpower appearance material nationalism represent supply beneficiary flavor manufacture please tooth bring head suitcase mill trail photograph opposite similar plaster steep manager time offend equinox theme hide legislature cherry hesitate nervous blow news freeze turkey infrastructure outside contribution neutral scrap undermine reaction refuse lazy behead factory stroke baby discreet bear regret perceive effective nominate cell brilliance sip electronics mutation picture thoughtful executrix bird bomb desert disagreement privilege bleed duke hut umbrella grave pocket fabricate speaker belt fault finish paint wait find slave growth suit nerve tolerate prestige contrast copyright comedy pupil paralyzed prefer present academy cheap sanctuary photography roof ceiling cruelty joy Sunday commission crown sit swop pride mug stir owl examination nail virgin attraction worm inside leftovers injection inquiry articulate agreement expose braid swipe construct command kill minute apparatus paragraph get episode dance vacuum prey light bean snake gallery palm grief business center shrink efflux build climate marketing quota rack organisation flex rehabilitation overlook colorful complication disorder site account concern avant-garde army bitter compliance national reach outfit performer migration transport mirror hospitality abolish wash process forum rent embox debt direct blame humanity confrontation persist door perception wound output breeze guide grandfather neighborhood solution forbid sofa quarrel set month code building service index finger presidency fixture chief symbol identity convert gutter loud weak allow broadcast laundry litigation rhetoric break down mention dash style connection park pill talkative location sale tumble important evoke bottle heal start humor smooth couple central suffering brink duck profile campaign muscle cassette circumstance thinker stab forestry chase idea blind colony dramatic rice acid experiment indulge side fountain crack lean expression goat beat bin frown slot update diplomatic railcar percent guess harbor story motif soak edition parachute progress step maximum conference polite bridge resource automatic few forget exotic 
submitted by Gourmet_Salad to OneWordBan [link] [comments]

Some words that successfully got the first ban last week

links lives local logic loose lower lucky lunch lying magic major maker march maria match maybe mayor meant media metal might minor minus mixed model money month moral motor mount mouse mouth movie music needs never newly night noise north noted novel nurse occur ocean offer often order other ought paint panel paper party peace peter phase phone photo piece pilot pitch place plain plane plant plate point pound power press price pride prime print prior prize proof proud prove queen quick quiet quite radio raise range rapid ratio reach ready refer right rival river robin roger roman rough round route royal rural scale scene scope score sense serve seven shall shape share sharp sheet shelf shell shift shirt shock shoot short shown sight since sixth sixty sized skill sleep slide small smart smile smith smoke solid solve sorry sound south space spare speak speed spend spent split spoke sport staff stage stake stand start state steam steel stick still stock stone stood store storm story strip stuck study stuff style sugar suite super sweet table taken taste taxes teach teeth terry texas thank theft their theme there these thick thing think third those three threw throw tight times tired title today topic total touch tough tower track trade train treat trend trial tried tries truck truly trust truth twice under undue union unity until upper upset urban usage usual valid value video virus visit vital voice waste watch water wheel where which while white whole whose woman women world worry worse worst worth would wound write wrong wrote yield young youth
capture careful carrier caution ceiling central centric century certain chamber channel chapter charity charlie charter checked chicken chronic circuit classes classic climate closing closure clothes collect college combine comfort command comment compact company compare compete complex concept concern concert conduct confirm connect consent consist contact contain content contest context control convert correct council counsel counter country crucial crystal culture current cutting dealing decided decline default defence deficit deliver density deposit desktop despite destroy develop devoted diamond digital discuss disease display dispute distant diverse divided drawing driving dynamic eastern economy edition elderly element engaged enhance essence evening evident exactly examine example excited exclude exhibit expense explain explore express extreme factory faculty failing failure fashion feature federal feeling fiction fifteen filling finance finding fishing fitness foreign forever formula fortune forward founder freedom further gallery gateway general genetic genuine gigabit greater hanging heading healthy hearing heavily helpful helping herself highway himself history holding holiday housing however hundred husband illegal illness imagine imaging improve include initial inquiry insight install instant instead intense interim involve jointly journal journey justice justify keeping killing kingdom kitchen knowing landing largely lasting leading learned leisure liberal liberty library license limited listing logical loyalty machine manager married massive maximum meaning measure medical meeting mention message million mineral minimal minimum missing mission mistake mixture monitor monthly morning musical mystery natural neither nervous network neutral notable nothing nowhere nuclear nursing obvious offense officer ongoing opening operate opinion optical organic outcome outdoor outlook outside overall pacific package painted parking partial partner passage passing passion passive patient pattern payable payment penalty pending pension percent perfect perform perhaps phoenix picking picture pioneer plastic pointed popular portion poverty precise predict premier premium prepare present prevent primary printer privacy private problem proceed process produce product profile program project promise promote protect protein protest provide publish purpose pushing qualify quality quarter radical railway readily Reading reality realize receipt receive recover reflect regular related release remains removal removed replace request require reserve resolve respect respond restore retired revenue reverse rollout routine running satisfy science section segment serious service serving session setting seventh several shortly showing silence silicon similar sitting sixteen skilled smoking society somehow someone speaker special species sponsor station storage strange stretch student studied subject succeed success suggest summary support suppose supreme surface surgery surplus survive suspect sustain teacher telecom telling tension theatre therapy thereby thought through tonight totally touched towards traffic trouble turning typical uniform unknown unusual upgrade upscale utility variety various vehicle venture version veteran victory viewing village violent virtual visible waiting walking wanting warning warrant wearing weather webcast website wedding weekend welcome welfare western whereas whereby whether willing winning without witness working writing written
facility familiar featured feedback festival finished firewall flagship flexible floating football foothill forecast foremost formerly fourteen fraction franklin frequent friendly frontier function generate generous genomics goodwill governor graduate graphics grateful guardian guidance handling hardware heritage highland historic homeless homepage hospital humanity identify identity ideology imperial incident included increase indicate indirect industry informal informed inherent initiate innocent inspired instance integral intended interact interest interior internal interval intimate intranet invasion involved isolated judgment judicial junction keyboard landlord language laughter learning leverage lifetime lighting likewise limiting literary location magazine magnetic maintain majority marginal marriage material maturity maximize meantime measured medicine medieval memorial merchant midnight military minimize minister ministry minority mobility modeling moderate momentum monetary moreover mortgage mountain mounting movement multiple national negative nineteen northern notebook numerous observer occasion offering official offshore operator opponent opposite optimism optional ordinary organize original overcome overhead overseas overview painting parallel parental patented patience peaceful periodic personal persuade petition physical pipeline platform pleasant pleasure politics portable portrait position positive possible powerful practice precious pregnant presence preserve pressing pressure previous princess printing priority probable probably producer profound progress property proposal prospect protocol provided provider province publicly purchase pursuant quantity question rational reaction received receiver recovery regional register relation relative relevant reliable reliance religion remember renowned repeated reporter republic required research reserved resident resigned resource response restrict revision rigorous romantic sampling scenario schedule scrutiny seasonal secondly security sensible sentence separate sequence sergeant shipping shortage shoulder simplify situated slightly software solution somebody somewhat southern speaking specific spectrum sporting standard standing standout sterling straight strategy strength striking struggle stunning suburban suitable superior supposed surgical surprise survival sweeping swimming symbolic sympathy syndrome tactical tailored takeover tangible taxation taxpayer teaching tendency terminal terrible thinking thirteen thorough thousand together tomorrow touching tracking training transfer traveled treasury triangle tropical turnover ultimate umbrella universe unlawful unlikely valuable variable vertical victoria violence volatile warranty weakness weighted whatever whenever wherever wildlife wireless withdraw woodland workshop yourself
submitted by Rabakku-- to OneWordBan [link] [comments]

Khiron Life Sciences Reports 2018 Fiscal Year End Results and Provides Corporate Update

Khiron Life Sciences Reports 2018 Fiscal Year End Results and Provides Corporate Update
Canada NewsWire
TORONTO, May 1, 2019
TORONTO, May 1, 2019 /CNW/ - Khiron Life Sciences Corp. ("Khiron" or the "Company") (TSXV: KHRN), (OTCQB: KHRNF), (Frankfurt: A2JMZC), is pleased to report its financial results for the year ended December 31, 2018. Khiron has filed today its audited consolidated financial statements and related management's discussion and analysis, both of which are available on Khiron's profile at All financial information in this press release is reported in Canadian dollars, unless otherwise indicated.
Quarterly Summary of Financial Results
Q1 2018
Q2 2018
Q3 2018
Q4 2018
Comprehensive Loss
Weighted avg. shares
Total assets
Total non-current financial liabilities
December 31, 2018
Comprehensive Loss
Weighted avg. shares
Total assets
Total non-current financial liabilities
Financial Highlights
Khiron achieves first sales during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018. Sales totalled $891,677 and were attributable to the commercialization of Kuida branded cosmeceutical products, and the acquisition of ILANS, a network of medical clinics in Bogota, Colombia. These initial sales represent an initial market entrance in advance of any other licenced producer in Colombia. Gross margin on sales was 33.3%. Management anticipates gross margin to increase with the introduction of higher margin medical cannabis products.
Operating costs were consistent with management expectations and totalled to $20,093,697. The majority of these expenditures were comprised of general and administrative expenses of $9,560,797. The total comprehensive loss for the period was $20,230,765.
Cash and cash equivalents as at year-end were $18,963,272. These amounts are reflective of equity capital and warrant exercises completed during the period. Cash resources have enabled the Company to accelerate its business plan and expand its team across markets. Subsequent to the reporting period, the Company also completed a bought deal financing for gross proceeds of $28,842,000 in Q1 2019.
Year-end accounts receivable and accounts payable were, respectively, $4,323,771 and $6,817,235. These amounts are directly attributable to the commercial operations of the Company, including accounts receivable and payables associated with the ILANS acquisition. The Company had total working capital of $17,493,835 as at December 31, 2018.
Management Commentary
Alvaro Torres, Khiron CEO and Director, commented: "Fiscal 2018 marked an important year for Khiron as we accomplished a number of significant objectives towards delivering on our strategy of becoming an internationally recognized, market-leading cannabis company. From a start-up to a team over 250, we have established operations and activity in multiple jurisdictions, acquired medical clinics, developed a market-leading skincare brand, entered into research partnerships, set up educational programs and received patient association endorsements."
Mr. Torres continued, "We operate in a complex, fast-moving industry, and I would like to recognize our incredible team who have worked hard to bring the Khiron vision to life. It has been their passion and commitment that has made our significant progress possible."
Mr. Torres concluded, "We have much work to do in growing the Company and remain focused on executing all aspects of our business to generate value for our shareholders and bring medical cannabis products to people in Latin America and globally."
2018 Highlights
Geographic Expansion
Patient Association Endorsements
Product Development and Portfolio
Revenue Generation and Product Distribution
Grow Status – Regulatory and Capacity
Merger and Acquisitions
Key Board and Management Appointments
About Khiron
Khiron Life Sciences Corp. is positioned to be the dominant integrated cannabis company in Latin America. Khiron has core operations in Latin America and is fully licensed for the cultivation, production, domestic distribution, and international export of both THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol) medical cannabis. In May 2018, Khiron listed on the TSX Venture Exchange, becoming the first Colombian based medical cannabis company to trade on any exchange globally.
With a focused regional strategy and patient oriented approach, the Company combines global scientific expertise, agricultural advantages, branded product market entrance experience and education to drive prescription and brand loyalty to address priority medical conditions such as chronic pain, epilepsy, depression and anxiety in the Latin American market of over 620 million people. Khiron is led by Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer, Alvaro Torres, together with an experienced executive team, and a knowledgeable Board of Directors that includes former President of Mexico, Vicente Fox. Further information on Khiron Life Sciences can be found at
To be added to the distribution list, please email [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) with "Khiron" in the subject line.
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements This news release contains forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable Canadian and United Statessecurities laws. Often, but not always, forward-looking information can be identified by the use of words such as "plans", "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "estimates", "intends", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", or "believes", or variations of such words and phrases or state that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might" or "will" be taken, occur or be achieved. Forward-looking information involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Khiron or its subsidiaries to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking information contained in this news release. Examples of such statements include statements with respect the future market share, product development, build out of facilities, the proposed acquisitions of NettaGrowth and CanapaLife Group, and additional market and product expansion, among others. Risks, uncertainties and other factors involved with forward-looking information could cause actual events, results, performance, prospects and opportunities to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking information, including risks contained in the Company's annual information form filed with Canadian securities regulators available on the Company's issuer profile on SEDAR at Although the Company believes that the assumptions and factors used in preparing the forward-looking information in this news release are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on such information and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. The forward-looking information included in this news release are made as of the date of this news release and the Company does not undertake an obligation to publicly update such forward-looking information to reflect new information, subsequent events or otherwise unless required by applicable securities legislation.
Neither the TSXV nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSXV) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release.
SOURCE Khiron Life Sciences Corp.
View original content to download multimedia:
submitted by sebpara to weedstocks [link] [comments]

Some news you may have missed out on part 41.

-PTI government to present NAP - 2 which would have important element of cyber security
The new version of Pakistan’s National Action Plan includes cyber security. The Ministry of Interior recently announced it would introduce NAP-2 and restructure the National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA).
-Complete ban on purchase of motor vehicles by government authorities
The government has put a complete ban on purchase of motor vehicles (except motorcycles) by all ministries, divisions and departments during current fiscal year. The decision has been taken under austerity measures by PTI government, according to a notification dated December 03, 2018 issued by Finance Division.
-New gas and condensate reserves discovered in Pakistan A new Gas and Condensate discovery has been been reported in Sindh, Pakistan. As per media report, Pakistan Petroleum Limited has made a gas and condensate discovery at its exploration well Hadaf X-1 in Sindh’s Sanghar district.
According to the press statement, after drilling to a depth of 3,700m to find hydrocarbon potential, following observations were made:
-Federal government hints at reopening Swiss bank accounts case against Asif Ali Zardari
Special Assistant to Prime Minister on Accountability Shahzad Akbar on Wednesday has hinted about reopening the Swiss bank accounts case against former president Asif Ali Zardari. He said that an agreement has been signed between Pakistan and Switzerland on sharing of bank accounts details.
Addressing a press conference in Islamabad on Wednesday, he said that following the agreement with Switzerland, the government could get bank accounts details.
-Federal cabinet to decide subsidy for captive power plants tomorrow
In an apparent bid to provide a subsidy to “influential” owners of captive power plants, the Petroleum Division, on the advice of the Finance Division, has put Prime Minister Imran Khan and his federal cabinet in a test, it was learnt on Wednesday. The Petroleum Division has sought from the federal cabinet an approval to a subsidy worth approximately Rs18 billion and a change in the priority list for gas supply to various categories of consumers. The Petroleum Division has prepared a summary for the federal cabinet on the advice of the Finance Division. The federal cabinet is likely to take a decision on the summary of petroleum ministry in its meeting to be chaired by PM Imran Khan today (Thursday), said sources.
-Finance Minister Asad Umar gives a deadline for economic revival
Finance Minister Asad Umer has given a two years deadline for economic revival of the country. Responding to a question, the minister said that the government imposed tax on people having income above Rs200,000, adding that the poor people were not burdened.
2 years >>>>> 100 days.
-Temporary shelter homes built in Peshawar
-Azerbaijan to buy JF-17 Blok II combat aircraft from Pakistan
Negotiations between Azerbaijan and Pakistan on the purchase of JF-17 Block II combat aircraft are coming to the end, the representative of the company "Pakistan Aeronautical Complex" (PAC) informed Azeri Defense at the international exhibition İDEAS-2018 in Karachi. It is assumed that 24 such aircraft will be delivered to Azerbaijan, with a total value of $500 million
-Kanupp-II to commence operations in December 2020
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Muhammad Naeem on Monday said the 1,100-megawatt (MW) Karachi Nuclear Power Complex-II (KANUPP-2) will commence operations in December 2020 and KANNUPP-3 in October 2021. While speaking at a seminar organized by the Centre for Peace, Security and Development Studies (CPSD) on Monday, Mr Naeem stated once the 100MW Chashma-5 is completed, Pakistan intends to generate 8,800MW nuclear energy by 2030, reports The News. PAEC chairman told that both the plants had a workable life of sixty-years, which could be elongated to eighty-years. He added, “Nuclear power plants are reliable having high availability and capacity factor, relatively environmentally friendly, and provide sustainability of electricity price having a low share of fuel cost.”
-Germany Is Offering 3 Million Jobs to Pakistanis
German foreign ministry has written a letter to Pakistan asking to develop a plan to provide skilled labor for the country. As per details, a German news agency Katholische Nachrichten-Agentur (KNA) has reported citing Spegiel Online that the German foreign office’s Europe Wing has written a letter to the Pakistani foreign mission requesting it for the provision of skilled labor. The letter specifically mentions the fields for which they expect labor for. The report claims that the European country has demanded 3 million skilled workers from Pakistan, including IT experts and engineers.
Pakistan has decided to export electricity to Tajikistan in winter season through CASA-1000 project as in the power purchase agreement (PPA), a reverse flow of electricity clause was included and to this effect the authorities in Power Division would soon engage their counterparts in Tajikistan, a senior official of Power Division told The News. Under the agreement, the official said, once the CASA-1000 project is completed, Pakistan will import 1,000MW electricity from Tajikistan at 9 cents per unit in summer season for 5 months from May to September, but now authorities in Islamabad have made up their mind to export 1,000MW electricity to Tajikistan through the same project in winter as hydro generation in Tajikistan turns zero.
-Pakistan & Italy Sign MoU for Multi-Sector Trade Cooperation
Pakistan and Italy Tuesday signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to enhance economic and trade cooperation in different sectors, stated a press release. Federal Secretary for Commerce Mohammad Younus Dhaga, while addressing as chief guest at the MoU signing ceremony between ICE, Italian Trade Agency and Trade Development Authority of Pakistan, informed that both countries agreed to extend the cooperation in infrastructure and construction, energy, logistics, transport, telecoms, water, machinery and equipment for manufacturing marble and stones, textile, clothing, leather, shoes, rubber, metal and chemical products. Both sides also agreed to increase cooperation in agriculture and food equipment, machinery and equipment for health and pharmaceutical sector, automotive, consumer goods, food, furniture, clothing and apparel, he added.
-Over 200 Hindu pilgrims cross Wagah border on 10-day religious tour
Pakistani officials accorded a warm welcome to 209 Hindu pilgrims from India, who crossed the Wagah Border on Wednesday to pay their respect at different temples situated inside Pakistan. Most of the Indian pilgrims, who were visiting the country for the first, expressed their joy for the goodwill gesture extended by the officials of Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB) at the Pakistan-India border. The visitors were welcomed with garlands and their favourite food. Overjoyed with the love and respect, they said they did not feel like strangers in Pakistan.
-PM Imran, Bill Gates discuss cooperation in social, IT sectors
Prime Minister Imran Khan and Bill and Malinda Gates Foundation Co-chairman Bill Gates held a telephonic conversation on Wednesday. Bill Gates, one of the world’s leading businessmen, felicitated Imran Khan on being elected as the prime minister of Pakistan and appreciated his efforts towards polio eradication. The Microsoft co-founder assured the prime minister of continued cooperation in various fields, including the strengthening of IT sector. The prime minister thanked Bill Gates for cooperation in the social sector.
-LMKT, Microsoft join hands to launch AppFactory in Pakistan
LMKT, a local technology company, has joined forces with Microsoft to launch the first AppFactory (Apprenticeship Factory) in Pakistan, which will develop the digital skills, coding capabilities and employability of young ICT graduates. Forming part of its new LMKT SPARK programme, the AppFactory will recruit up to 30 apprentices every six months, and place them alongside senior software technicians to work on real-world industry projects. After graduating from the programme, apprentices will be able to fully design and implement modern software solutions and have access to jobs through both LMKT and the Microsoft Partner Network. The AppFactory will recruit up to 30 apprentices every six months, and place them alongside senior software technicians to work on real-world industry projects
-Pakistan negotiating $2 billion commercial loans with China: Report
After the refusal of China to provide balance of payment (BoP) support to Pakistan, the country is said to be negotiating $2 billion worth of commercial loans with Beijing. According to well-informed sources, a technical team of the State Bank of Pakistan and Finance Ministry paid a visit to China recently to talk about various modalities of loans and interest rate, however, an agreement wasn’t inked because of differences and conditions imposed, reports Business Recorder. Islamabad had reached out to Beijing for $3 billion BoP support and after the conclusion of Prime Minister Imran Khan’s visit a technical team including Secretary Finance Arif Khan and State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) Governor Tariq Bajwa held talks with Chinese authorities but the result of the negotiations bore no fruit.
-IMF at initial stage of assessing how much funding Pakistan requires for a bailout: Report
The International Monetary Fund’s resident representative in Pakistan, Teresa Sanchez has said they are at initial stages of assessing how much resources Islamabad would require for a bailout. Pakistan hasn’t only approached for financial assistance but also for policy advice, which constitutes a usual part of its service to member countries, said Ms Sanchez.
-Railways minister vows Rs10bn profit in FY19
Railways Minister Sheikh Rasheed Ahmed on Wednesday said that the department has set a target of receiving Rs10 billion in profit margins for the Financial Year 2018-19. Talking to media at the Rawalpindi Railway Hospital, Rasheed vowed that the task given to him by Prime Minister Imran Khan as focal person for Leh Expressway Project would be completed soon. He announced that a new train would commence its operations from Karachi to Peshawar, covering the distance of 1,760km in eight hours at the speed of 160km per hour. Rasheed linked the benefits of the construction of China Pakistan Economic Corridor with the development of the railways’ department. “CPEC is the backbone of the economy and revolutionary changes would be carried out in the rehabilitation of railways with the support of China,” he added.
-CPEC must be materialised without further delay: Sartaj Aziz
Former finance minister Sartaj Aziz has said that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a win-win arrangement for both Pakistan and China and that all the projects under CPEC must be materialised without any delay, as it would lead to industrialisation in Pakistan. He was speaking at the Opening Plenary of 21st Sustainable Development Conference (SDC) organised by Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) on Wednesday.
-Govt slashes non-salary budget by 10%
The federal government has decided to cut non-salary current budget of the civilian setup by 10% as part of its austerity drive –a move that will help save nearly Rs10 billion in the remainder period of fiscal year but would not address core fiscal problems. The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government has also decided to continue with a ban imposed on creation of new posts excepts where the posts are required to be created under development projects. The Ministry of Finance has issued an office memorandum to give effect to the austerity measures for fiscal year 2018-19. Effectively, the cut in current non-salary expenditure will be on the budget allocations for the period of December 2018 to June 2019.
-Tracking Devices Are Now Compulsory for All Motorcycles in Sindh
Sindh has decided to make it compulsory for motorcycle owners to install a tracking device in their bikes. For this purpose, the provincial government will be amending the Motor Vehicle Ordinance. After the proposed amendment, it will be mandatory for motorcyclists to install tracking devices in their two-wheelers.
-Pakistan Railways to launch yet another new train
The Pakistan Railways will launch a new passenger train from Peshawar to Karachi on December 23, Sunday. “Around 90% work has been completed, while the work left will be completed before the launch,” a Railways official said. According to Radio Pakistan link, the fare of Rehman Baba Express will be Rs1,350.
-Pakistan’s Trade with South Asia Can Increase Eight-fold: World Bank
Pakistan’s trade with South Asia can go up by eight-fold if the trade barriers with regional countries are removed, said a new report of the World Bank. Pakistan’s trade with South Asia accounts for only 8 percent of its global trade, despite the region being the world’s fastest growing. However, intraregional trade in South Asia is among the lowest at about 5 percent of total trade, compared with 50 percent in East Asia and the Pacific.
Regional trade can create many more jobs and make the country prosperous, the report said. The recently-launched Glass Half Full: The Promise of Regional Trade in South Asia report documents what needs to be done to realize the full trading potential in South Asia. It was launched at the 11th South Asia Economic Summit, hosted by the Sustainable Development Policy Institute in Islamabad.
-PM expresses satisfaction over cordial ties between Pakistan, Japan
Prime Minister Imran Khan on Wednesday acknowledged the importance of Japan as a development and investment partner of Pakistan, and expressed satisfaction over the cordial relations between the two countries.
He also looked forward to a greater level of cooperation between the two countries, particularly in the area of trade, investment, infrastructure and human resource development. The prime minister was talking to National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister of Japan, Kentaro Sonoura, who called on him here. Welcoming Sonoura and members of his delegation, the prime minister appreciated the positive momentum of bilateral relationship between the two countries.
The prime minister encouraged Japanese investment in Pakistan, which had immense economic potential, having young population and unexplored mineral wealth.
JETRO survey on Japanese business in Asia had declared Pakistan as the top country for positive sale profits and future business expansion.
-Over One Million Pakistanis Have Signed Up to Donate Blood Using Facebook
More than one million donors have signed up to donate blood in Pakistan using Facebook’s feature of blood donations since its launch in March this year, according to the official data of Facebook. Facebook launched Blood Donations in Pakistan earlier this year to help make safe blood more accessible in Pakistan to all licensed blood banks and hospitals. With the blood donations tool, people can sign up to be blood donors on Facebook and get notified when people, blood banks, and hospitals near them need blood. It has an ongoing partnership with SBTP (Safe Blood Authority) to train blood banks on how to find volunteers donors through Facebook.
-Pakistan Railways is Now Offering 5 Percent Discount on 90-Day Advance Booking
The people intending to travel through Pakistan Railways will now have the facility of advance booking of seats 90 days prior to the travel date. A spokesman of Pakistan Railways said that the department has decided to facilitate passengers by offering 90-day advance booking facility. He said that a five percent discount will be offered on advance booking of seats. The discount on the advance booking will be effective in all trains and classes.
-A restaurant introduces it's menu in Braille on International Day of Disabled Persons for it's visually impaired customers
-Construction work on Kartarpur corridor initiates
The longstanding dream is finally being materialized in a literal sense as heavy machinery reached Kartarpur area of the district to start construction work on the corridor linking Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Kartarpur to Dera Baba Nanak in India’s Gurdaspur district. According to details, the construction company, in charge of the whole project, has shifted heavy machinery and raw material to Kartarpur to start building a four-kilometer road from the Gurdwara to the border.
-Pakistan invites World’s leading economic country to join CPEC projects
Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi has invited the Japanese businessmen to invest in Special Economic Zones created under China Pakistan Economic Corridor. He was talking to the National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister of Japan Kentaro Sonoura who called on him in Islamabad on Wednesday. The Foreign Minister briefed the Japanese side on CPEC and assured that Japanese investors will be facilitated in all fields of interest. Shah Mehmood Qureshi said Pakistan regards Japan as a close friend and a key economic partner. He said that government was focusing on socio-economic uplift of the people of Pakistan and furthering regional peace and stability. The Japanese National Security Advisor expressed his earnest desire to further strengthen bilateral relations between Pakistan and his country in the days to come.
-Economic benefits of low-income housing highlighted
Investment in low-income housing would bring “massive” economic benefits to Pakistan, according to a new study published by Karandaaz Pakistan and funded by the UK Government’s Department for International Development (DFID). The new study, ‘Enhancing Builder Finance in Pakistan’, was launched at an event in Islamabad. With this study, Karandaaz Pakistan aims to show the wide benefits of building more affordable housing, but also help boost the businesses of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that work on the building sector. The study estimates that the construction of 100,000 more houses each year will lead to economic growth as well as increased employment opportunities. According to the study, Pakistan’s economy will benefit massively if affordable housing were to be increased.
-‘Pakistan can achieve 30pc renewable energy generation by 2030’
As renewable energy is now the cheapest form of electricity generation in Pakistan, the government could reduce its reliance on expensive power plants and fossil fuel imports in favour of cleaner, more accessible electricity for people and businesses. A report, “Pakistan’s Power Future: Renewable Energy Provides a More Diverse, Secure and Cost-Effective Alternative,” produced by the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA), examines the current energy system in Pakistan while suggesting an alternative energy model for 2030. The report finds that Pakistan’s current power mix has an over-reliance on outdated fossil fuels technology and seasonal hydro-power generation, roughly split in a ratio of 70:20:10, being 70pc thermal and 20pc hydro, with nuclear power making up most of the rest.
-Pakistan’s IT Sector Will Produce 18,000 New Jobs in 2019: Report
The IT industry in Pakistan has been growing phenomenally for the past 10-12 years. Its tremendous growth can be identified from its contribution to the economy. IT sector’s share in the total exports accounts for 3.5 percent, which is more than double from 2006, which was 1.3 percent. The industry is projected to expand and grow across different categories. Along with contributing to the country’s exports, it has been generating numerous jobs for people. According to the Pakistan Technology Industry Survey 2018, the IT community is going to hire between 12,000 and 18,000 employees in 2019.
-Punjab Govt to Launch Health App for School Children
Punjab government is planning to launch a customized school app to promote health and hygiene among school-going children. The announcement has come from none other than Punjab Health Minister Dr. Yasmin Rashid in a media talk outside Punjab Assembly. As per the details, the app will launch in 12 selected schools. In the first phase, students of six girls and six boys schools will be screened. They will undergo medical tests of nose, ear, throat, teeth, eyes, and skin.
Part 33
Part 34
Part 35
Part 36
Part 37
Part 38
Part 39
submitted by FashBasher1 to pakistan [link] [comments]

Margin trading refers to the process of trading where an individual increases his/her possible returns on investment by investing more than they can afford to. Here, investors can benefit from the facility of purchasing stocks at a marginal price of their actual value. Such trading transactions are funded by brokers who lend investors the cash to purchase stocks. Reliance Securities FAQs or qna has most of the general Reliance Securities questions and answers related to product and services, margin, brokerage plans, customer support and many more. Link is provided below each question to discuss and comment or ask a question. There are a few margin trading rules that you need to abide by in all your margin-based trades. Although, the number of these rules is limited, however, if you fail to comply with these rules, there could be a lot of potential damages to you monetarily. A RELIANCE CAPITAL COMPANY Margin Trading Facility (MTF) To, Reliance Securities Limited Reliance Centre, 4th Floor, North Wing, Off Western Express Highway, Near Prabhat Colony, Santa cruz (E), Mumbai 400055. Consent to avail Margin Trading Facility Dear Sir, l/We am/are registered client with you and dealing having client code as mentioned below. Reliance Securities margin exposure limit for intraday, delivery and futures. Margin trading requirement and policy. Leverage calculator and Margin exposure in Reliance Securities.

[index] [66] [456] [473] [398] [572] [606] [654] [540] [30] [861]