Karena Investing hangat banget disini. Saya jadi terpikir untuk menuliskan sisi lain dari investing agar ada balance yang baik, yaitu entrepreneurship atau invest pada diri sendiri. Disclaimer: Saya bukan lulusan Ekonomi/Management/Bisnis. Tulisan ini akan lebih ke pengalaman pribadi dan hasil perjalanan mengitari dunia berwirausaha dan Investasi selama beberapa tahun. Tulisan tidak ditujukan untuk memberikan jawaban paling baik melainkan harus dicerminkan kembali ke kondisi anda.
Sebagai awal akan saya ceritakan sedikit background saya. Dulu saya pernah menjalankan usaha, baik personal atau join dengan teman kuliah menjalankan usaha berkali-kali, mungkin bisa disebut kami itu "serial entrepreneur" Dari banyak usaha itu, hanya hitungan satu tangan yang benar" hidup hingga saat ini. Bisa kita akui bahwa teori hanya 50% start-up/company yang bisa beneran berdiri dalam setahun pertama, dan 70% sisanya akan jatuh dalam 5 tahun berikutnya. Sekarang saya sedang melepas dari hidup entrepreneur, mungkin akan kembali dalam satu atau dua tahun ke depan.
Pembahasan ini akan dibagi menjadi:
- Pengertian Dasar
- Modal Utama
- Pros dan Cons
- Pengertian Dasar
- Modal Utama
- Pros dan Cons
- What to Choose?
Entrepreneurship Pengertian dasar
Singkatnya adalah proses mendesain, merancang, dan menjalankan suatu bisnis.
Proses ini dimulai dari sebuah ide, yang kemudian menjadi bisnis nyata yang bertujuan untuk mendapatkan profit
. Profit merupakan tujuan akhir dari semua entrepreneurship, bahkan tidak terkecuali untuk social-prenuer yang berlabelkan sosial. Lalu mungkin anda bertanya berapa lazimnya % profit dari sebuah usaha? Ini akan tergantung dari sektor dan jenis usaha dan tempat yang anda pilih untuk menjalankan usaha. Retail mempunyai range profit dari 5% sd 20%
. Kuliner cenderung punya nilai net-profit lebih besar ketimbang retail karena proses perubahaan dari bahan baku hingga produk akhir, menyerupai proses produksi pabrik. Sepengalaman saya secara pribadi % profit dari kuliner bisa dari 50% sd 200% dan itu masih tergolong wajar. Mungkin,
ini yang menjelaskan mengapa usaha kuliner mewabah beberapa tahun ini. Modal Utama
Semua orang mungkin berpikir untuk menjadi budak korporat seumur hidup karena berwirausaha itu berat di modal. Tetapi, modal utama dari berwirausaha bukan di uang melainkan lebih condong ke ide/produk, dan SDM
. Jika anda seorang business-savy kemungkinan anda pernah mendengarkan reality show dengan label Shark Tank, dan Dragon Den. Yang menjadi juri disini adalah seorang pebisnis handal, yang dinilai disini bukan uang modal awal mereka, tetapi seberapa realistic dan visible
baik secara produk dan SDM ketika pitching. Ketika produk bagus tapi SDM mereka jelek dalam menghantarkan produk, mereka gagal. Ketika SDM bagus tapi produk memang jelek, mereka juga gagal. Pros & Cons
- Margin profit diatur sendiri.
- Kepemilikan usaha pribadi.
- Pergerakan diatur secara sendiri.
- Risk Aversion bias yang harus dilawan.
- Risk tergolong besar.
- Time & attention consuming.
Investing Pengertian Dasar
Investing merupakan proses membuat uang untuk bekerja untuk anda. Membuat uang berputar untuk menghasilkan uang lainnya. Ada banyak jenis investasi, salah satu yang populer yaitu tabungan berjangka/deposito, saham dan bonds. Lalu seperti halnya Entreprenuer, ada hal yang dicari dari Investing yaitu gain
. Lalu apa beda gain dan profit?
Profit merupakan pendapatan dari suatu usaha yang beredar, sedangkan gain merupakan keuntungan yang dihasilkan diluar dari kegiatan berbisnis. Kedua ini sering digunakan dalam keseharian untuk saling mengganti, tetapi itu adalah penggunaan istilah yang salah secara accounting. Berapa % gain rata-rata dari sebuah investasi? Pada umumnya investasi berada di 8% gain/year
baik secara bonds atau pun stock market.
Untuk investasi semacam peer to peer lending atau angel investor valuenya bisa di 0 hingga tak terhingga
selama perusahaan masih berdiri. Modal Utama
Disini uang adalah harga mati untuk modal. Komponen satu-satunya dan terpenting dalam investing ini, merupakan bahan utama untuk mendapatkan gain optimal.
Semua orang yang mengejar kebebasan finansial berusaha memaksimalkan gain. Di era sekarang, investasi jauh lebih gampang ketimbang dua dekade dibelakang. Peer to peer lending, stock market, SBR, Angel Investor semakin mudah diakses ketimbang dulu. Tinggal pilih mana yang sesuai dengan tingkat Risk anda. Pros & Cons
- Tersedia opsi yang terjamin.
- Memerlukan time & attention yang tergolong rendah.
- Terdapat beberapa jenis investasi yang bebas pajak.
- Gain yang tergolong rendah jika dibandingkan profit.
- Psychological bias bisa membuat investasi menjadi sulit
- Pergerakan lebih cenderung hanya bisa diikuti.
What to Choose?
Secara saya ada belajar Behavior Economics. Otak manusia semakin tua akan semakin Risk Averse, semakin kecil konsekuensi yang berani dia ambil. Maka jika anda masih muda
, masih punya tenaga lebih, semangat membara. Build your own empire is your best bet.
Jangan cuman mau bikin orang lain kaya saja, tetapi perkaya diri sendiri. Tapi ketika sudah di penghujung kepala 2 atau bersiap untuk berkeluarga mungkin ini adalah pilihan yang nomor kesekian. Ada pertaruhan yang cukup besar di dalamnya, meski itu masih pilihan yang rasional.
Ketika anda sudah cukup berusia atau berkeluarga
. Meski anda senang judi, atau taruhan pacuan kuda/bola dan lainnya. Tidak saya sarankan untuk menyimpan uang dengan resiko tinggi seperti money game, valas trade, saham gorengan. Karena pada umur ini anda akan lebih memerlukan uang simpanan dengan sasaran yang tepat seperti Bonds atau Bluechip Stocks
. Meski ada yang membuka usaha ketika baru menikah dan kemudian sukses ini hanya sebagian cerita sukses dari begitu banyak cerita kegagalan yang tertimbun.
Tapi, ini semua bukan patokan mati
. Jika anda memang ada menyisihkan/budget untuk melakukan trading cepat atau memulai usaha, silahkan! Malah sangat saya sarankan. Pada pebisnis handal tidak kenal usia dalam melemparkan uang mereka untuk membangun bisnis baru atau untuk investasi yang menjanjikan. Jadi jika anda bisa budgeting dengan benar, silahkan lakukan keduanya.
Anyway, ini pertama kalinya saya bikin post panjang di reddit. Biasanya nulis di media lain dengan tema yang berbeda pula. Jadi, any input and recommendation are very welcome.
Extra Note: Min coba diliat deh flairnya. Kyknya ga pas, bukannya: Entrepre
JAVANESE HISTORY MATRIX
The matrix below is analytical tool, and not a definitive account of the History of Java.
| ||Sultan Agung 1613 to Treaty of Giyanti 1755 ||Treaty of Giyanti to Java War 1825 ||Aftermath of Java War to 1965 ||Impact of 1965 Cataclysm until Reformasi 1998 |
|EXPANSION AND GOVERNMENT || || || || |
|Expansion ||South Central Java (1613) + Rest of Central Java, Most of East Java and parts of West Java (1755) Mataram Sultanate ||Most of Java, Spice Islands, Manado, Bengkulu and (1755) + North Sulawesi and South Sumatra (1825) VOC -Netherlands ||Most of Java, Spice Islands, North Sulawesi, Bengkulu, South Sumatra (1825) Netherlands / Rest of Indonesia Except Papua Indonesia ||Annexation of Papua |
|Government ||Feudal to Centralized Despotism ||Looser Control until 1800. Greater Centralization From 1800-1825 ||Centralized Bureaucracy ||Centralized Bureaucracy |
|POPULATION AND ECONOMY || || || || |
|Population ||3.5 Million (3) ||1825 7-8 Million (3) ||1940 48 Million ||1971 75 Million (3) 2017 149 Million |
|Population Density ||Like Kalimantan Today 30 people / km2 ||1825 60 people / km2 ||1940 350 / km2 ||1971 545 / km2 2017 1090 / km2 |
|Urbanization Rate ||Overwhelming Rural ||Overwhelming Rural ||5% Urbanization in 1930 ||12% Urbanization in 1971, 40% in 2000, 62% in 2015 |
|Migration ||Under Sultan Agung to Sabang, Indramayu, Cirebon ||Negligible ||Starting from late 1850s migration to Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo ||Private migration to outer islands. Worker in Middle East, Malaysia-Singapore and East Asia |
|Economic System ||Subsistence Farming, Trading ||Subsistence Farming, Trading ||Plantation Economy, Industry, Trading ||Plantation Economy, Industry, Trading |
|LANGUAGE AND CULTURE || || || || |
|Literacy ||Estimate <1% ||Estimate <1% ||In 1920, 3% for Native Males 0.5% for Females (1) ||2018- 92% (2) |
|Languages ||Javanese, Javanese-Malay in Pesisir ||Javanese, Javanese-Malay in Pesisir ||Javanese-Malay and or Dutch ||Indonesian - Javanese |
|RELIGION || || || || |
|Islamicized ||Pesisir (North Coast) ||All except for remote mountain areas and Oosthoek ||All except for remote mountain region ||Formalization of Islamic practice |
|Islamization ||Interior Regions ||Oosthoek ||N?A ||Remote mountain areas |
|Weak Islamization ||Oosthoek and remote mountain areas ||Remote mountain areas ||Remote mountain areas ||N/A |
|Reformist islam ||N/A ||Urban Pesisir ||Pesisir, by mid 19th century move to inland towns ||All |
|Christianity ||N/A ||Urban Pesisir Protestant Only ||All of Java, Both Catholic and Protestant ||Surge in Conversions due to 1965 |
1For Java and Madura. For natives in the outer islands it was 12% and 3%.
In 1930, the literacy rate in Sumatra was 31%, and in Java and Madura 16.2% 2 East Java, Central Java, DIY had some of the lowest literacy rates in Indonesia, and it had to do with the low female literacy rates. The female literacy rate is 90% in 2018 vs 98% in Aceh, West Sumatra
. One reason for this is Tanah Java has a higher % of elderly than the rest of Indonesia due to stricter enforcement of family family planning under Suharto and migration. As of 2015 12% of the Javanese Home Provinces is 60 years or older compared to 7% in Sumatra
. An older population pulls down the literacy rate. 3
Includes West Java and Madura
TRENDS IN JAVANESE HISTORY 1613-1998
The first two sections, on Expansion and Centralization, and Rise and Fall of Plantation Economy are related in the sense they highlight the importance of elite or vested interest particularly during the earlier colonial period. The last two sections on Malayifcation and Islamization while treated separately, are closely intertwined, which I elaborate when it is relevant.
EXPANSION AND CENTRALIZATION
Whether the occupying entity was the Mataram Sultanate, VOC, the Dutch state or the Republic of Indonesia, from the reign of Sultan Agung to Reformasi 1998 was one of expansion and centralization. In 1613, the Mataram Sultanate occupied a territory that covered only Central Java, by the time Sultan Agung died in 1645, the Mataram Sultanate had controlled all of Java except for Banten, Batavia and part of the Oosthoek. However, the rapid expansion under Sultan Agung and the centralizing administrative reforms introduced by Sultan Agung laid the foundation for the subsequent rebellions and wars of successions that would plague his successors. It was the need for Dutch military assistance and loans to fight these rebellions that indebted the Mataram Sultanate to the VOC.
Ironically, the VOC's involvement in the affairs of the Mataram lead to the eventual bankruptcy of the VOC in 1800. Here is the a list of the wars fought between 1613-1755
- Conquest of Surabaya, Madura and parts of East Java 1613-25
- Siege of Batavia in 1626 and 1629
- Sumadang and Ukar Rebellion 1631-36 (West Java)
- Tembayat Rebellion 1633 (Central Java)
- Capture of Giri last Wali stronghold on Java 1635 (East Java)
- War against Hindu Balambangan 1635-40 (East Java)
- TrunaJaya Rebellion 1674-80
- FIrst Javanese War of Succession 1704-1708
- Second Javanese War of Succession 1719-1723
- Java War of 1741-1743
- Third Javanese War of Succession 1749-1755
Outside of the Third Javanese War of Succession, all wars were either wars of conquest or rebellion
There are two views on this period. The first view which is held by most non-Dutch historians was the subsequent rebellions after Sultan Agung was caused poor leadership and lack of islamic spirit by subsequent Mataram rulers. Most Dutch historians and more recent Indonesian historians believe destructive nature of the Sultan conquests and political and administrative structure Sultan Agung had setup in these conquered territories was the source of subsequent grievances.
I take the second view. First the Sultan Agung conquest was devastating for conquered territories, particularly pesisir trading communities and towns. The conquest of Surabaya was very nasty. It involved nine years of war. From 1615-25, five sieges were conducted against Surabaya, and during the last siege they spoiled the water supply and dammed the Brantas River. Secondly, more damaging to the Mataram Sultanate, was the system setup by Sultan Agung to manage conquered territories and rulers.
Prior to Sultan Agung, the Mataram Sultanate operated like Javanese kingdoms before it, when ti conquered lands, the defeated entity would usually become a vassal. However, Sultan Agung reduced the uses of the vassal system, and instead opted a centralized system, where he would appoint an official from the capital, the adipati, to rule the conquered territory, The conquered ruler and much of his family would be moved to the capital often as "hostages" as well as bring captive laborers and craftsmen to build the Mataram capital
, as Denys Lombard said the capital became a microcosm of the kingdom
Penguasa Mataram, dimulai Panembahan Hanyakrakusuma, lalu membangun satu sistem -yang disebut de Graaf- pemerintahan paralel: menempatkan seorang adipati sebagai administrator di wilayah taklukan saat penguasa de jure wilayah taklukan tinggal di ibukota Mataram. Keduanya harus tunduk pada perintah penguasa agung di Mataram.
Penempatan beberapa orang-orang taklukan berikut pemimpinnya di ibukota ini bertujuan jelas. Selain untuk memudahkan kontrol atas jajahan, penempatan orang taklukan itu juga untuk memudahkan tersedianya tenaga kerja untuk melakukan apa saja demi kepentingan penguasa.
Trunajaya's rebellion from 1674-80 is often portrayed as an Islamic rebellion against Amangkurat II
alliance with the infidels. the VOC. However, the main reason for the revolt had to do with reasons I described above. Trunajaya's father and grandfather were held in such circumstances
, and his father was murdered at Amangkurat I‘s court. However, based on written accounts, what Trunajaya want was not to overthrow Amangkurat II
, but wanted Amangkurat II
to recognize control over his ancestral lands in Madura. Ultimately,,Trunajaya's revolt failed, because the Javanese nobility were reluctant to a Maduraese.
When the Dutch took over from the Mataram Sultanate they continued with the system of adipati, renamed to bupati, and eventually extended it to the outer islands. When Indonesia became independent in 1949, they inherited this system from the Dutch. The centralized system developed under Order Baru was just the system under the Sultan Agung extended throughout the country. Governor and Bupati were often ex-military men, many of them Javanese. The multiethnic elite in Jakarta, in many ways is like the "captured" local elites held by Sultan Agung.
This is recurring theme in Javanese history from 1613-1825, the wars and strife between 1613-1755 was a result of the attempts by Mataram Sultanate to impose centralized control. The VOC restored this equilibrium between 1755-1799. From 1799-1825, the Dutch renewed Agung's attempts at centralization and undermining local elites in their attempts to modernize the system and do away with many of noble privileges. Unfortunately, this was a key factor in causing the Java War. Despite the cruelty of the Cultivation System, because the Dutch brought the local elites into the system
RISE AND FALL OF THE PLANTATION ECONOMY
Like with expansion and centralization of the government structure, the Javanese economy from 1613-1998, went through several stages where the mode of production goes from Feudal (1613-1808), Market experiment (1808-1830), the Semi-Feudal Cultivation System (1830-1873), Market Orientated Liberal and Ethical 1874-1930s
and more state intervention after 1949. This section will provide a general overview of the colonial period, while only going into analysis on how it has impacted Javanese identity afterwards. There has been a lot of research on economic history of colonial Java, but most of it is done by Western economic historians. The bulk of the information will come from Colonial state formation and patterns of economic development in Java, 1800-1913 Jan Luiten van Zanden, University of Utrecht, 2010
Prior to the establishment of the Cultivation System in 1830s
, the economic system on Java could be described as feudal.
- Agricultural and non-monetized. Majority of the population were peasants. Governed by an elite which draws surpluses mainly from the agricultural sector.
- Surplus is extracted using non-economic means, i.e. through labour services and claims to % of produce
- The claims to (the produce of) labour and land of the different layers of society are overlapping: often the sovereign claims to be the sole owner of the land, but peasants have strong user-rights
- Contracts are oral
The period between 1808-1825
that started with Daendels, continued with Raffles and Van der Capellen . These reformers were heavily influenced by the European Enlightenment. While there are differences in what they wanted was to create a system which was
- Formal bureaucracy to replace informal mercantile system of the VOC and hold of the feudal elites. Most successful of all the reforms.
- Replace forced deliveries and obligations with land rents to be paid in cash (Raffles)
- Tried to turn into a Market Economy. Linked price of Coffee to world market prices ( Van der Capellen)/ The hope was to break the control of village heads on negotiation of contracts, and have the peasnats themselves determine what was produced.
The policies failed because there was a lack of coin (money) circulating in the local economy), making it difficult for peasants to pay their taxes.. Secondly, these reforms upset the local elites, the village heads and nobility.
The impact of this period was largely political-economic, rather the economic There wasn't much change in GDP per capita or in the production of export crops from earlier period.
The after 1830 to 1965, can be divided into two periods, the Cultivation System which lasted from 1830-1873, and period from 1874-1965, which covers Liberal and Ethical period, and first 15 years of independence. The Cultivation System was a system to use the surplus labor of Javanese peasants to produce export crops through coercion. While the VOC had such a system for Coffee in Priangan region of West Java (all Sunda speaking areas of West Java), it was very limited, with total exports being about 7000 metric tonnes
. The reason for abandoning the early reforms from 1799-1825, was as Van den Bosch argued in a memo to King William I in 1829
Because of its distant location, the resulting high transportation costs and the relatively high costs of producing coffee and sugar in Java – the island could not compete with other (Caribbean) colonies on European markets. Moreover, Javanese peasants, because of the richness of their soils and the high yields of rice cultivation, could produce their own subsistence in only a fraction of their labour time; he in fact assumed that 120 days of labour were sufficient for the feeding of a family. The high productivity of rice cultivation also meant that the incentive to switch to coffee (or sugar) was absent
The motive of the Dutch state was to generate revenue to cover the increasing cost of colonial administration, cost of the Java War and Belgium War of Independence in 1830. At one point, transfer from Java covered 3.5% of Dutch GDP and 30% of the Netherlands government budget. It was successful in bringing the local elite (priyayi and village heads) into the system, and restoring the privileges of the priyayi like allowing sons to inherit post).
The consensus was the Cultivation system was a success from 1830-1840s, exports of cash crops like Tobacco, Sugar and Coffee grew by several fold. One reason for its initial success was the introduction of cheap copper coins into the economy. Per capita GDP was stable until the mid 1840s, than you see a drop in per capita consumption. In 1845/46 and 1849/50 there were two famines on Java. You don't see a recovery in per capita consumption until the 1880s.
By 1850, the colonial administration started to introduce market mechanism within the cultivation system, corvee labor was gradually replaced with free wage labor. While the Max Havellar
did have an impact in changing colonial policy, the policy had started to change before the book was released in 1860. More favorable conditions begin to emerge in the 1860s that allowed market economy to take root that weren't present in 1820s -- more professional bureaucracy, better infrastructure, European entrepreneurs with capital and larger labor pool due to increased population. The subsequent period between 1874-1965 which covers both the Liberal and Ethical periods, at the beginning wasn't a complete break from the cultivation system.
Coercion was still use, but was gradually phased out as wage labor became more important. In this period you see the gradual development of large plantations. This was most notable in the sugar industry. By 1920s, some of the sugar plantations on Java were very large. Java and Cuba supplied about 50% of the exported sugar in the world. Because of limited land and large pool of labor, Java's sugar industry was was focused on maximizing yield through using latest scientific methods, research and increase mechanization.
During this period you start to see a shift in dominance of Java to the outer islands in the export of cash crops like rubber, coffee and tea. Value of Java's coffee exports fell by 70% from 1880 to 1830. By 1930 the outer islands coffee export was twice those of Java. The same with rubber.
The only export crop java was dominate in was sugar, most likely because the investment in sugar mills and factories and nature of sugar plantations in the Dutch East Indies which was
By the mid 19th century, Javanese begun to migrate to the outer islands and Malaya. In 1947, in Malaya out of a population 5 Million, there were 190,000 Javanese out of population of 300,000 individuals from the Dutch East Indies. Most of the Javanese came as contract labor or small land holders. Many of the Javanese travelled to Singapore and Malaya to evade Dutch quotas on who could travel to the Haj, every year.
Between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries, around 2,000 to 7,000 Javanese made the pilgrimage to Mecca annually via Singapore, The Javanese pilgrims would often work in Singapore and Malaya for months, or even years, to earn sufficient funds for their pilgrimage. On the return journey, some Javanese pilgrims would settle in Singapore or work on the island for a few years to settle their debts.
Within the Dutch East Indies itself, the first Javanese contract laborers arrived in East Sumatra (Deli) in 1880, after the Chinese and the British colonial government made it more difficult for Chinese and Tamils to work in the Dutch East Indies.
Oleh karena itu, tahun 1880 awal kedatangan buruh Jawa ke Deli, yaitu masukya 150 orang...Pada tahun 1905, diantara 33.961 orang kuli kontrak Jawa terdapat 6.290 orang perempuan...Pada tahun 1926, kuli kontrak laki-laki Jawa berjumlah 142.000 orang, sedangkan buruh wanita Jawa 52.400 orang. Namun, catatan Belanda lainnya menunjukkan tahun 1920 saja, jumlah orang Jawa di Sumatera Timur ada 353.551 orang, melebihi jumlah orang Melayu yang tercatat 285.553 orang.
The first transmigration settlement in Indonesia since Sultan's Agung settlement of West Java was setup in Desa Bagelen in Lamping in 1905
. By 1940, the colonial government had sent 65,000 transmigrants from Java. From 1949-1965, Sukarno sent another 85,000 transmigrants.
The period from 1949-1965 was really a transition period for the economy on Java, it was still a plantation economy, even when Dutch and later on Chinese plantations were seized between 1957-59
. The move away from a plantation economy starts in 1970s with Order Baru.
There are two components to this shift, the first is the massive transmigration programs launched by the Suharto government which shipped between 4.5-5 Million people from 1966-1996 from East Java, Central Java and Bali to the outer islands. This provided the outer islands what they lacked which was manpower. What this did was develop the bulk of the plantation economy in the outer islands. Java still grew cash crops like coffee, sugar and tea, but production levels grew slowly.
Starting from the early 1970s, the yields on sugarcane dropped from 9 Metric Tonnes a Hectare to 5.74 Metric Tonnes a Hectare in 2010
. In 1940 it was 17 Tonnes a hectare. The reason for this drop was prior to the 1975, farmers used irrigated sawah land to grow sugarcane, after that they increasingly used marginal non-irrigated land, as the government focused on rice self-sufficiency. Sugar cane was grown to supplement income, not as the main crop. Secondly the big drop from yields in 1940, was during the colonial period, there were large vertical sugar estates which controlled everything from growing, harvesting, milling and refining.
As it moved away from a plantation economy, there wasn't enough work to absorb the number of new workers entering the labor force.As a result, from 1980-90, the Suharto government signed formal agreements between countries outside Malaysia and Singapore, to hire Indonesian workers - Arab countries, Hong Kong and Taiwan
With the opening up of the Indonesia economy in 1986, Indonesia began to attract a lot of overseas investment to develop light manufacturing in Indonesia, particular in West Java and Batam, and to a lesser extent East Java.
Prior to the Dutch setting up the Cultivation System, most Javanese outside select trading and religious communities in Pesisir had little exposure to Malay. In the 17th century during Trunajaya Rebellion, the Dutch were still using Dutch-Javanese interpreters when communicating with the Mataram nobility
, At least among the Mataram nobility and courtier, knowledge of Malay wasn't common. This also applied to the vast majority of Sundanese and Balinese as well. However, in Pesisir trading communities Malay was more widely used. However, by the mid 18th century this had changed. The Dutch and Javanese priyayi communicated with each other in Malay, By the 19th century, the Dutch government took greater control over the lives of ordinary Javanese and Sundanese. First there was a greater presence of Malay speakers in the interior, both Dutch, Chinese and native from other island spoke Malay. KNIL Christian soldiers from Eastern Indonesia communicated primarily in Malay, the language of communication for lower ranks of the KNIL. A creolized Malay had replaced the native tongues of the vast majority of Christian Ambonese by the 19th century
. Like the VOC staff before them, most Dutch civil servants during the start of the cultivation system communicated with natives using Malay. It was only by mid-19th century were they formally trained in the languages of the people they were supposed to administer.
The education policy of the colonial government flucated, during the earlier period between 1850s, they started to setup state schools that taught in both the local languages and Malay. Of course during this time this policy only applied to the Sundanese and Javanese, and did not apply to schools in the Spice Island or Manado where they would used Malay. On java, as students progressed through the system, more Malay was used, as it was considered the lingua franca
and "modern". This didn't include the pesantren and mission schools. In the pesantren,, they would be using Arabic and Javanese kawi/pegon for commentary. Prior to the 19th century, even Pesantren in Madura nad Sunda would be using Javanese.
In the Catholic mission schools setup in 1890s in Central Java, the main language of instruction was Dutch, but Javanese and Malay were also taught
While the majority of Javanese didn't start to learn Malay/Indonesian until after independence, by the period between 1900-1942,
Malay was the language of youth and modernity, of newness and experiment, and the forms of Malay that were used on Java in writing and printing were leaning on the Malay that was spoken in the urban centres of Batavia, Semarang, Solo, [and] Soerabaja rather than on the written forms that were preserved in manuscripts in the Malay heartland
Malay united the various racial groups that lived in the cities - natives, Chinese, Arabs, Eurasians and Europeans. That being said, different races would add their own words and lexicon in their use of Malay. Peranakan newspapers Sin Po
(1910–1965) and Keng Po
(1923–1961) would have have Hokkien loan words.
By the late 19th century, besides the Malay and Dutch newspapers,there were also Javanese publications
. By the 1920s, there were Sundanese
newspapers, Batak newspapers
etc. Many of them continued to exist after independence, but most died off in the late 1960s and 1970s. At the same time the Javanese nobility and middle classes (both pribumi and Chinese) preferred that their children be educated in Dutch, because a Dutch education was considered superior to a Malay education.
This bias lasted until the 1957, when the Dutch medium schools were closed. I knew a person who was born in 1950, and who's father was a KNIL-TNI officer, and he went to a Dutch language kindergarten. It wasn't just a matter of Dutch being a Western language, many Javanese considered Malay to be inferior and less expressive. One of Budi Utomo's goals in 1910s was to increase availability of Dutch educated to natives. This was part of the impetus behind the Teman Siswa and Kartini Schools, which taught Javanese and Dutch.
Malayification intensified under the Japanese when they banned Dutch and some regional language publications. When the Dutch came back in 1945, Dutch schools reopened. However, Malayification continued and accelerated after independence with the expansion of public mass education with Bahasa Indonesia as the national language.
Bagi banyak investor, sering salah mengartikan antara margin sebagai Trading limit . Pada dasarnya, akun trading saham terbagi atas 2 macam, yaitu : Akun Regular dan akun Margin Trading. Perbedaan antara keduanya adalah : Akun Regular: - akun trading yang biasa digunakan untuk bertransaksi saham Profit Margin dalam analisa laporan keuangan didapat dari persentase Gross Profit, yaitu keuntungan kotor dari penjualan setelah dikurangi harga pokok penjualan, sebelum dikurangi biaya penjualan dan administrasi yang nantinya akan menghasilkan Net Profit. Penggunaan istilah Margin dalam Investasi. Margin juga digunakan dalam Investasi pasar modal. Margin dari A akan habis saat terkena Margin Call, yaitu pada saat harga mobil mencapai USD 9000. Dalam trading yang sesungguhnya, trader harus deposit lebih besar dari margin yang ditentukan, untuk menjaga eksistensi dari posisi yang dibuka, atau istilahnya ketahanan dari posisi yang dibuka. Margin pada trading forex yaitu suatu jaminan yang digunakan dalam melakukan transaksi jual atau beli pada trading forex.Besarnya margin di pengaruhi oleh jumlah transaksi dan leverage yang berlaku.Pada kesempatan ini kita akan membahas cara menghitung margin dan leverage untuk pemula. Hal utama penyumbang kesuksesan trading yaitu kontrol money management,yang mana margin level adalah salah satu alat pengontrolnya,akan tetapi jika margin level masih dibawah 100% atau malah 0% maka margin level menjadi tidak berguna yang dapat menyebabkan dana akan habis tak tersisa.
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